Psychiatrists treating depression can monitor progress by serially measuring severity of symptoms with a standardized scale. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, abbreviated HDRS, HRSD or HAM-D, measures depression in individuals before, during and after treatment. There are 16 measures, selected from the Inventory of Depressive Symptomology (IDS, 2000). The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): III. They range from relatively lengthy and complex instruments, such as the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory,1 to brief one-or two-item instruments.2 This article includes the brief screening instruments that are most widely used in the pri… , The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) sets are self-reported depression rating scales. (2016). Appl Psychological Measurement 1, 385 to 401. Therefore, items on these tests may not be optimal. (2010). Montgomery, S.A., & Åsberg, M. (1979). It has 3 subscales (depression, anxiety, and stress) with 14 items in each subscale for the DASS 42. Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives, http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3518.104.22.168, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306, http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000510, Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Sciences: CES-D, https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-8510(90)90421-9, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-8510(96)00822-6, https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s40258-017-0310-5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2010.12.007, A Rating Scale for Depression (PDF, 1.3MB), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1986.tb02723.x, ScienceDirect: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3522.214.171.124, MHS Assessments: Social Problem-Solving Inventory, https://doi.org/10.1080/00207411.1978.11448806, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13034-015-0089-9, ASEBA: Brief Description of the Child Behavior Checklist (PDF, 71KB), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-0038-x, Children’s Depression Inventory 2 (PDF, 904KB), Western Psychological Services Publishing, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860903421052, The Measurement of Pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01866-8, The 16-Item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), Clinician Rating (QIDS-C), and Self-Report (QIDS-SR): A Psychometric Evaluation In Patients With Chronic Major Depression, http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.18.1737, http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.07.003, APA: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 & PHQ-2), http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/48.5.P256, https://doi.org/10.1080/13607860903167820, Construction and Validation of the Reminiscence Functions Scale, http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002, Rand Corporation: 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), 36-Item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-36) (electronic), https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770090101010, MHS Assessments: Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764005057391, The Social Functioning Questionnaire: A Rapid and Robust Measure of Perceived Functioning, Social Functioning Questionnaire (PDF, 345KB), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000008, Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: Geriatric Depression Scale, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/16.2.134, © 2021 American Psychological Association, Pricing varies and can be purchased through, The GDS is in the public domain and no permission is required for use. The accurate assessment of psychological symptoms is an essential component of developing a helpful formulation regarding a client's difficulties. The The QIDS-SR measures the severity of depressive symptoms in adults 18 and older. Introduction The 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) and the shorter GDS-15, GDS-5 and GDS-4 are recommended as depression screening tools for elderly individuals. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 51(3), 265-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764005057391. Methods: Outpatients with moderate to severe major depression were consecutively randomized to 24 weeks of either measurement-based care (guideline- and rating scale-based decisions; N=61), or standard treatment (clinicians' choice decisions; N=59). A psychometric study of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Reynolds, C.R., & Kamphaus, R.W. Spitzer, R.L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J.B.W., & Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group. Reduced appetite Representing the feeling of a loss of appetite compared with when-well. The Depressive Life Experiences Scale was designed to assess the depressive life experiences found in a study by Snell, McDonald, and Koch (1989). (2012). The Children’s Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) was originally designed to measure changes in depressive symptoms in children ages 6 to 12, but its validity and reliability have also been demonstrated in the adolescent population (up to 18 years old). During the past month, have you often been bothered by little interest or pleasure in doing things? BASC is a trademark, in the U.S. and/or other countries, of Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates(s). The estimated time for completing the questionnaire is 10 minutes. HAMILTON DEPRESSION RATING SCALE (HAM-D) Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) Handgun Access—NYC Youth Violence Survey Handling Bullying Questionnaire 1 I feel sad 2 I am sad all the time and I can't snap out of it. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 10, Article ID 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13034-015-0089-9. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-report measure designed to screen depressive symptoms. Clinicians are encouraged to review the evidence-based literature about these assessments, especially regarding their intended use and appropriate populations, in order to determine which tools are best suited for their patients and practices. He described nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales of measurement, which are briefly defined below. Evaluation of psychometric properties and factorial structure of the pre-school child behaviour checklist at the Kenyan Coast. Advance online publication. The estimated prevalence of depressive disorders is 1322% in primary care clinics but is only recognized in approximately 50% of cases. The 14-item Resilience scale as a potential screening tool for depression/anxiety and quality of life assessment: a systematic review of current research. It has a yes/no format, and the 15-item version, using a cutoff of five, has good sensitivity and positive predictive values for diagnosis of major depression ( Table 2 ). Snell et al. (1993). Radloff, LS (1977), The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. For example, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a self-reported, 9-question version of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 55-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000008. The theoretical basis for the instrument is that life gains its quality from the ability and capacity of the individual to satisfy his or her needs. DEPRESSED MOOD (Gloomy attitude, pessimism about the future, feeling of sadness, tendency to weep) 0 = Absent 1 = Sadness, etc. The BDI can be used for ages 13 to 80. The Beck Hopelessness Scale is a self-report measure for adults age 17 to 80. It is not a screening tool for depression but it is used to monitor the severity of depression and response to treatment. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4, Lopez, M.N., Quan, N.M., & Carvajal, P.M. (2010). Patient Health Questionnaire", Journal of the American Medical Association, "Screening and case finding instruments for depression", "Differential Association of Cognitive and Somatic Depressive Symptoms with Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study", "The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure", "Screening for major depression in private practice", Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS-11), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rating_scales_for_depression&oldid=996546279, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS), The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Research in process - Banner University Medical Center, Hamilton Rating Scale (HRSDD, HDRS, Ham-D), Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Depression and Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children, HEADS-ED, used in hospital emergency departments, Children’s Depression Rating Scale (CDRS), Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS-SF), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Clinician (QIDS-C), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (QIDS-SR), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 06:44. Factorial structure and psychometric properties of the reminiscence functions scale. Aging & Mental Health, 14(6), 752-756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860903421052. It takes 10 to 15 minutes to administer and score. Initial assessments of depressive symptoms can help determine possible treatment options, and periodic assessment throughout care can guide treatment and gauge progress. The EuroQol Group (1990) EuroQol — A new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. It has 3 subscales (depression, anxiety, and stress) with 14 items in each subscale for the DASS The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale is a depression measure designed by William WK Zung to assess the level of depression for patients diagnosed with depressive disorder. Yesavage, J.A., Brink, T.L., Rose, T.L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V.O. It takes 10 to 20 minutes to complete. A rating scale for depression.  The Beck Depression Inventory was originally designed by psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck in 1961. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.134.4.382, Davidson, J., Turnbull, C.D., Strickland, R., Miller, R., & Graves, K. (1986). The RFS assesses the frequency with which adults, 18 years and older, engage in the act of recollecting past experiences or events. Weissman, M.M., & Bothwell, S. (1976). Archives of General Psychiatry, 33(9), 1111-1115. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770090101010, Gameroff, M.J., Wickramaratne, P., & Weissman, M.M. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-1A, BDI-II), created by Aaron T. Beck, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used … Medical Care, 32(1), 40-66. With respect to the stress scale, our results were consistent with the findings of Oei et al. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4(6), 561-571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004. Detection of postnatal These instruments are relevant to the treatment of depression. The scale is administered by a health care professionals and contains 21 items, but is scored based on the first 17 … Three separate rater forms are available: one for parents (17 items), one for teachers (12 items) and a self-report (28 items). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ primary care study. Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) Unipolar and bipolar depression differ significantly, both neurobiologically and in clinical presentation. The DASS manual contains more detailed information about the DASS, and may be ordered for a nominal fee of $55.00. The social functioning questionnaire: A rapid and robust measure of perceived functioning. Beck, A.T., Ward, C.H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. Respondents answer questions on a 6-point Likert-type scale, and responses are scored in eight different categories. The DASS is a 42-item self report instrument for measuring depression, anxiety and tension/stress. Keywords: depression, RADS, self-reports, validation, measurement invariance, adolescents Empirical evidence indicates that depressive symptomatology is a psycholog- Each question is rated on a scale of 1 through 4 based on four possible answers: "a little of the time", "some of the time", "good part of the time", and "most of the time". , The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is another self-administered scale, but in this case it is used for older patients, and for patients with mild to moderate dementia. The Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) is a self-report measure of social functioning. Consequently, new tools were formulated such as the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) (Cuijpers et. Appl Psychological Measurement 1, 385 to 401. This depression rating scale includes a 27-item screening questionnaire and follow-up clinician interview designed to facilitate the diagnosis of common mental disorders in primary care. Medical Care, 30(6), 473-483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002, McHorney, C.A., Ware Jr, J.E., Lu, J.R., & Sherbourne, C.D. Designed by psychiatrist Max Hamilton in 1960, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale is one of the two most commonly used among those completed by researchers assessing the effects of drug therapy. It takes 15 to 20 minutes to complete and score. Additional versions are available, including the Teacher’s Report Form and Youth Self-Report (from age 11). (2001). The Depressive Life Experiences Scale (DLES) is an objective self-report instrument designed to assess six depressogenic life experiences: (1) social exits, (2) interpersonal disharmony, (3) personal inertia, (4) personal frustrations, (5) personal inadequacies, and (6) others' misfortunes. The clinician must choose the possible responses to each question by interviewing the patient and by observing the patient's symptoms. , The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) is completed by the patient and a researcher. However, most psychiatrists do not. It has a yes/no format, and the 15-item version, using a cutoff of five, has good sensitivity and positive predictive values for diagnosis of major depression ( Table 2 ). Next, testing of weak measurement invariance indicated poor model fit, as Δ CFI exceeded .01. Depending on the scale, it takes 20 to 30 minutes to administer. The scale, including all developments and translations, is copyright: © Stuart Montgomery 1978, Measures of Depression, Fulcrum Press, London. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used to screen for depression and to measure behavioral manifestations and severity of depression. Mayes, T.L., Bernstein, I.H., Haley, C.L., Kennard, B.D., & Emslie, G.J. It assesses an individual’s negative expectations about the future. Other scales have been developed to measure depression in specific age groups, such as adolescents and the elderly. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) www.cnsforum.com 4 5. (2003). The revised version has both a long form (52 questions) and short form (25 questions). Sharp, LK, and MS Lipsky (2002) Screening for Depression across the lifespan: A review of measures for use in primary care settings. The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the nine DSM-IV criteria as "0" (not at all) to "3" (nearly every day). Aging & Mental Health, 14(2), 184-192. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607860903167820. Used by permission from Dr. Jeffrey Webster. There is no evidence that the BDI-II is more valid or reliable than other depression scales, and public domain scales such as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Zung Depression scale and Patient Health Questionnaire – Nine Item (PHQ-9) has been studied as a useful tool.. Children's depression rating scale, revised (CDRS-R). (2004). Acta Paedopsychiatrica: International Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(5-6), 305-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t00788-000, Sun, S., & Wang, S. (2015). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Reprinted with permission from Cox JL, Chapman G, Murray D, Jones P. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale …  Several rating scales are used for this purpose. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale Sample. 3.2. Tyrer, P., Nur, U., Crawford, M., Karlsen, S., McLean, C., Rao, B., & Johnson, T. (2005). What is the highest level of education you have Each item is rated on a 7-point scale. As part of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), a multi-year, multi-site study that investigated variations in patient outcomes, the RAND Corporation developed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) as a set of easily administered quality-of-life measures. (2006). The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), clinician rating (QIDS-C), and self-report (QIDS-SR): A psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression. The measurement of life satisfaction. Two scales measure emotional problems and functional problems. Screening should be implemented with adequate systems in place to ensure a… The present paper investigates to which degree 7 common depression scales differ in their item content and generalizability. Validity and reliability of the BDI has been tested across populations, worldwide. Other copyrighted scales allow individual clinicians and researchers to make copies for their own use, but require licenses for electronic versions or large-scale redistribution. It takes one to five minutes to complete and roughly the same amount of time for a clinician to review the responses. The DASS assesses negative emotional symptoms by using a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 to 3. It takes about 20 minutes to complete and is intended for individuals 17 years and older. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 20(6), 513-516. https://doi.org/ 10.1089/cap.2010.0063. The routine practice is to assess depression severity with one particular depression scale, and draw conclusions about depression in general, relying on the assumption that scales are interchangeable measures of depression. Bloomington, Minnesota: Pearson Assessments. al., 2007). 0 I do not feel sad. The CDI is now on its second edition. Objective: The authors compared measurement-based care with standard treatment in major depression.  Alternatively, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale has ten items to be completed by researchers assessing the effects of drug therapy and is the other of the two most commonly used among such researchers. (1961). Mild depression 14–19; Moderate depression 20– 28; Severe depression 29–63. Psychometric properties of the children's depression rating scale–revised in adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 21(1), 52-65. https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.358. 3 I am so sad and unhappy that I can't stand it. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale. Biological Psychiatry, 54(5), 573-583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01866-8. Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and reportedly undertreated condition in the United States and worldwide. Key Descriptions The DASS assesses negative emotional symptoms by using a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 to 3. Validation studies were based on a comparison of the DRS with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Cornell Scale for Depression. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1: 385-401. , Screening programs using rating scales to search for candidates for a more in-depth evaluation have been advocated to improve detection of depression, but there is evidence that they do not improve detection rates, treatment, or outcome. General Hospital Psychiatry, 28(1), 71-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.07.003. Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale is a short self administered survey to quantify the depressed status of a patient. Assessment of social adjustment by patient self-report. Rather than being used to diagnose depression, a depression rating scale may be used to assign a score to a person's behaviour where that score may be used to determine whether that person should be evaluated more thoroughly for a depressive disorder diagnosis. The Carroll Depression Scale is one of three measures of depression developed by Bernard Carroll. M. Using scales to monitor symptoms and treatment of depression (measurement-based care). Development and preliminary evaluation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory. Beck's Depression Inventory This depression inventory can be self-scored. Beck, A.T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The Children’s Depression Inventory is a modification of the Beck Depression Inventory for adults. The Beck Depression Inventory is the most commonly used tool completed by patients, although scales completed by observers are more common. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. The aim of this study is to illustrate an example application of Rach Measurement Theory (RMT) in the evaluation of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Last Modified: Friday, 07 December 2018 Neugarten, B.J., Havighurst, R.J., & Tobin, S.S. (1961). Reproduced by Permission of SAGE Publications. Additionally, there are other tools that can help in the treatment of depression, including the MARS (Medication Adherence Rating Scale) and ASEC (Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist). Reliability of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: A meta-analysis over a period of 49 years. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/48.5.P256, Robitaille, A., Cappeliez, P., Coulombe, D., & Webster, J.D. A depression rating scale for children. Common depression screening measures for adults are shown in Table 2. BASC3 Copyright © 2015 NCS Pearson, Inc. Reproduced with permission. Life satisfaction index for the third age (LSITA): A measurement of successful aging. for the measurement of depression; its scales are based on the old psychiatric nomen- clature; and factor analytic studies reveal that the Depression Scale contains a num- … Hamilton, M. (1960). It was introduced as a health-related quality of life measure by a group of European researchers, the EuroQol Group. Rate by loss of desire for food or the need to force oneself to Covering 17 symptom areas, the scale was adapted from the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and is set up as a semi-structured interview with the child/adolescent. • Sadness (Dysphoria) • Sleep (1996).  There is also evidence that a consensus on the interpretation of rating scales, in particular the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, is largely missing, leading to misdiagnosis of the severity of a patient's depression. Together, these ten questions measure how distressed you’ve been recently, by signs of depression and anxiety. The Quality of Life In Depression Scale (QLDS), originally proposed by Sonja Hunt and Stephen McKenna, is a disease specific patient-reported outcome which assesses the impact that depression has on a patient's quality of life. Positively worded and ten negatively worded PHQ ) sets are self-reported depression Rating scale categories that are rated a. Complete and is intended for individuals with cognitive dysfunction measures play a role in diagnosis, hypothesis-testing,,! Sleeping habits and problems you may have related to your sleep brief for. 752-756. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2010.12.007, in the general population is 1322 % primary. Inventory—Ii with adolescent psychiatric inpatients and indexes Reproduced in this report without permission from either the present investigates..., 55-60. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/48.5.P256, Robitaille, A., Cappeliez, P., Coulombe,,. Robitaille, A., Kopper, B.A., Barrios, F.,,! 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