The currently dominant technologies are cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) with, approximately, 65%, 25% and 10% of the total thin-film market share, respectively [35]. A Review of Recycling Processes for Photovoltaic Modules, Solar Panels and Photovoltaic Materials, Beddiaf Zaidi, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74390. Licensee IntechOpen. A brief literature review is assessed based on recently published articles and reports, which provides the readers a general overview on the solar PV waste management and regulations made by world leader countries in solar panels. Recycling of PV modules can, stances (e.g. Summary of “hot knife” recycling process for PV modules [46]. When comparing c-Si recycling and landfill EoL scenarios it was found that the environmental impacts from the recycling process are lower than for landfill, assuming that the recycled resources go back to the PV cells and modules manufacturing. It Additionally, *Address all correspondence to: r.corkish@unsw, Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney. This step of the process generates CdCl2 and TeCl4 that are condensed and precipitated afterwards [43]. CdTe is the most widely used thin-film technology, significant amounts of cadmium (Cd), an element, environmental problem that has been studied worldwide [37, 38]. Moskowitz March 1994 Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Group Analytical Sciences Division Department of Applied Science Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York 1 1973 This research was performed under the … © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The problem of utilization and recycling become a cornerstone, since these processes can also affect the environment and accelerate After that, these small pieces are exposed to an atmosphere containing, conditions result in the delamination of the EVA. Meanwhile, Results of 2016, cumulative global PV waste streams are expected to have reached 43,500-250,000 metric The economic viability should be achieved as well. Thin-film solar module basic structures [36]. Environmental benefits (i.e. Today, process, which starts by pyrolising the modules. MML and RC acknowledge the support of the Australian Government through the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). Total collection rate for WEEE in 2014 as a percentage of the average weight of EEE put on the market in the three preceding years (2011–2013) [8]. For example, high temperature thermal processes and mechanical processes can create impu-, rities. These are equivalent to 4% of installed PV panels in that year, with waste amounts by the 2050s Renewable and Sustainable Energy, based on byproduct minerals: A case study of tellurium. By including PV panels in the WEEE Directive in 2012 the European Union has introduced a concrete legislative framework regarding EOL for this sector. Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1997, Conference Record of the Twenty-. Also, low temperature processes that are used with specific mechanical or chemical steps can generate impurities as well. However, current recycling methods are mostly based on downcycling processes, this area. Once materials can be recovered, without impurities, then they will have a, obstacles to the growth of the PV recycling industry, An overview of possible thin-film recycling processes is show in, The large-scale recycling of thin-film PV modules, cells, thin-film PV modules are currently processed and recycled using a combination of. The current standard c-Si module, modules is a relatively complex task, since these materials need to be, materials/layers of a solar module can be separated, metals such. PV modules that reach their EoL will build up a, large stock of embodied raw materials (as mentioned previously), which can be recovered and, become available for other uses or even for solar cells again. An environmental study made for the European Full, (FRELP) project showed that environmental impacts from c-Si recycling processes come from. Furthermore, recycling processes for all the different PV technologies are not yet well developed. CdTe is the most widely used thin-film technology. 1st, Current feasible processes. PV modules are largely recyclable. Thin-film solar modules recycling processes. These include recovery of raw Once all the installed capacity starts, late 2017, the Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association (. Detrimental effect of crystalline solar photo-voltaic panel is highlighted in this paper laying emphasis on their decommissioning and recycling portion. PV modules are largely recyclable. However, the prediction for 2050 is, that the recoverable value could cumulatively exceed 15 billion US dollars (equivalent to 2, billion modules, or 630 GW) [7]. Lastly, the circular business model implementation for PV systems and its role in mitigating environmental impacts is highlighted. As a result of the increase, the volume of modules that reach the end of their life will grow at the same rate in the near future. Because of that, there should be a, continuous focus on scientific evidences on the potential impacts and, Furthermore, recycling processes for all the different PV technologies, oped. Furthermore, the International Technology Roadmap for Photovoltaic (ITRPV) prediction for the installed PV capacity in 2050 is 4500 gigawatts [6]. The ideal approach for disposing of end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules is recycling. Global The next step is to separate the glass from the larger ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pieces, via a vibrating screen. Given heavy metals present in PV modules, e.g. PV modules that reach their EoL will build up a large stock of embodied raw materials (as mentioned previously), which can be recovered and become available for other uses or even for solar cells again. Japan comes next followed by India. 2016; solar cells. Comparison of these characteristics to the fundamental limits based on the Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance model provides a basis for identifying the key limiting factors, related to efficient light management and charge carrier collection, for these materials. This bill is cur-, In Australia, governments have recognized the, are in place to deal with the PV waste issue. In their research, they focused on innovative process called FRELP for recycling of Si PV module. Particularly high cumulative deployment rates are expected by that time in China Even with the difficulty of recovering rare, toxic and valuable materials from solar modules, the recycling process has a remarkable environmental advantage [28]. After that, for CIS only, recovered as well as the glass cullet [45]. The summary of these processes is shown in, Reclaim PV has teamed up with major solar module manufacturers who distribute in Australia, and is refining its processes. Even with targets aiming for 65% recycling product weight, some of, the current studied recycling processes can recycle over 80% of the weight of a PV module, Thin-films represent less than 10% of the total PV industry [3]. Besides, this review believes the basics of PV panel installation, management and recycling process which could recommend upcoming guidance for the public policymakers. + Understand under which conditions and applications bifacial systems offer advantages over standard PV systems Today, the take-back of modules is organized via a “bring-in” system [44]. Submitted: November 9th 2017 Reviewed: January 25th 2018 Published: February 15th 2018. Summary of PV cycle recycling process for c-Si modules [25]. The realities show that the current pace of climate change exceeds historical changes. Improved reliability, operation, and performance can be achieved through monitoring. The EU directive [8] established recycling targets in terms of module weight and also expresses the intention to increase the collection rates to allow the progressive recycling of more material and less to be landfilled. Contact our London head office or media team here. Licensee IntechOpen. Once all the installed capacity starts reaching EoL (within 20–30 years) they will create a significant waste problem for Japan. Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use. The company manages the collection and transportation of EoL modules to the recycling centre; however, the recycling process itself must be financed. The rest of the components have a small percentages of the module weight [29, 34]. Besides that, Si-based tandem solar technologies are expected to appear in mass production after 2019 [7]. Moreover, currently only Europe has a strong regulatory framework in place to support recycling, but other countries are starting to build specific frameworks related to PV waste. are expected to account for the largest shares of global PV waste in the future, as outlined by case studies in this report. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applica-. Purpose The cumulative worldwide PV generation capacity reached 302 GW in the end of 2016 [2] and the predominant technology (90% of the market) is crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells [3]. Although recycling processes can achieve good recycling rates and recover almost all materials from solar modules, attention must be paid to the use of toxic substances during the chemical routes of recycling and to the distance to recycling centres due to the impacts of transportation. As a result of the increase, the volume of modules that reach the end of their life will grow at the same rate in the near future. This review can provide a quantitative basis to support the recycling of PV panels, and suggests future directions for public policy makers. California, for example, has additional threshold limits for hazardous materials classification based on the Senate Bill 489 that categorizes end-of-life PV modules as Universal Waste (facilitating easy transport). Then, the focus will be drawn onto the environmental impacts associated with solar PV systems. The main objectives of this policy are to preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment, to protect human health and to utilize natural resources prudently and rationally. The challenges to design the ideal PV recycling process are many. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. This study identifies the importance of encapsulating PSCs and the welding materials on the rear side of c-Si solar cells to minimize the release of toxic substances into the environment. The “Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets” aims at providing preliminary information about how the PV market developed in the last year. If a recycling process for PV waste that is revenue positive (i.e. Although PV recycling modules are energy intensive, their implementation compensate for the energy used for producing virgin modules. all the stages, from the collection of the PV modules to the end of the recycling process. It can be seen that there are opportunities and challenges related to PV recycling processes. Considering these findings, we have developed a rapid dismantling process allowing the recovery of all major components, saving raw materials, energy and production time in the fabrication of recycled PSCs. the predominant technology (90% of the market) is crystalline silicon (c-Si). material and the emergence of new solar PV end-of-life industries. The use of hazardous metals like lead, cadmium in solar photovoltaics (PVs) are rapidly increasing which poses the risk to the environment due to potential release of these constituents. Moreover. After that, for CIS only, the EVA resin is burned and the CIS layer is grated. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. This article illustrates and analyses an innovative process for the recycling of silicon PV panel. Circular use of high‐purity silicon and intact silicon wafers from EoL PV modules can be economically feasible in reducing 20% of the manufacturing cost of the second‐life modules, even with some efficiency reductions. PV Cycle is a not-for-profit organization which goal is to manage PV waste through their waste management programme for solar PV technologies [42]. „Wenn niemand etwas dagegen tut, dann verwandelt sich alles in einen mausgrauen Matsch“ – so formulierte Boulding bereits 1971 seine Ansicht zu der Tatsache, dass der menschliche Abfall in höherem Ausmaß zur Entropie beiträgt, als der natürliche fortwährende Prozess des sich Vermischens, der ohnehin auf der Erde abläuft. End-of-life management could become a significant component of the PV value chain.1 As the findings of the report underline, recycling PV panels at their endof- life can unlock a large stock of raw materials and other valuable components. In all cases, real solar cells were used as opposed to the pure component. OSTI.GOV Technical Report: A review of incentives, strategies and model technologies for recycling photovoltaic modules California, for example, has additional, threshold limits for hazardous materials classification based on the Senate Bill, rizes end-of-life PV modules as Universal Waste (facilitating easy transport). To achieve the best possible results at, acceptable costs, it is essential that future recycling processes stay up. During the next 4–6 h the semiconductor films are removed in a slow leaching drum. Information about countries outside the IEA-PVPS network is collected through the industry network, industrial associations, IRENA and REN21. Their particularly short energy payback time (EBPT) in comparison to other established PV technologies makes them truly competitive. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This project funded by the CRC for Low Carbon Living (RP2008) considers the relationships betwee, + Improve current energy and thermal models of bifacial PV modules With the unavailability of walking and cycling infrastructure, people are forced to use vehicles majorly powered by petrol and diesel engines, ultimately increasing the carbon emissions. The recycling process for Si or CIS is based on pyrolysis of the polymers in a furnace. There are advantages and disadvantages of the different methods, considering all the stages, from the collection of the PV modules to the end of the recycling process. Recycling of photovoltaic waste boosts circular economy. However there is still incentive to improve, considering that most. cadmium, aluminum and silicon can be recovered and reused in new products. 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain; 2005. Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE; 2012, Proceedings of the EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium; 2013 4, improvements in industrial PV module recycling. In addition, the definition of mandatory requirements for EoL treatment could still be an obstacle to the effective acceptance of these recycling processes [20]. With the rapid deployment of silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies around the world, the volume of end‐of‐life (EoL) PV modules will increase exponentially in the next decade. Compared with landfill, it effectively prevents toxic and hazardous substances from the PV modules such as lead (Pb) to enter the soil and groundwater [,, ], causing many negative biochemical and physiological effects on human beings and other species [ 14 ]. For CdTe thin film modules, the results confirm the environmental benefit when recycling of glass cullet and copper is considered. In USA, some states go beyond the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which regulates hazardous and non-hazardous waste management [13]. people during their lives produce many waste, as the consumption is an integral part of any person. All rights reserved. economic feasibility, recovery of more materials, and recovery of unbroken cells), still remain in process efficiency, complexity, energy requirements and use of non-environmentally friendly materials for the treatment of some elements. The glass and some metals are sent to other companies for recycling and the solar cells can be turned into wafers again. [7] Weckend S, Wade A, Heath G. End-of-Life Management Solar Photovoltaic Panels. Sectors like PV recycling will be essential in the world’s transition to a sustainable, economically viable and increasingly renewablesbased Silicon solar modules recycling processes. In 2016 their process of recycling PV achieved a record recycling rate of 96% for c-Si PV modules (fraction of solid recycled) [25], which is a percentage that surpasses the current European WEEE standards. 2030s. The extraction of secondary raw material from EoL PV modules, if made in an efficient way, can make them available to the market again [68]. The rest of the components, The EU directive [8] established recycling targets in terms of module weight and also expresses, the intention to increase the collection rates to allow the progressive recycling of more material, and less to be landfilled. To begin with, the role of solar PV systems in the new energy sector will be highlighted, considering the global scenario. Besides that, it is important to note that no process can recycle 100% of recovered materials from solar modules yet [28]. However, there are some exceptions. Thin-films represent less than 10% of the total PV industry [3]. A company that has a well stablished c-Si recycling process is the SolarWorld [44]. ... 20,21) In ordinary state, these toxic substances are not released out but when there is a defect on the system due to improper handling or installation or if there is a crack in the system, rain can penetrate inside the systems and heavy metals may be leached out. During this process, the plastic components, glass and some metals are sent to other companies for recycling and the solar, turned into wafers again. The summary of this process is shown in Figure 6. These countries treat PV waste under a general regulatory framework for hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste or WEEE. credits) due to the potential productions of secondary raw materials have been intentionally excluded, as the focus is on the recycling process. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Ministers agreed that the state of Victoria would, lead innovative programs that seek to reduce the environmental impacts caused throughout, the lifecycle of photovoltaic systems. The process starts with the removal of the frames, and the backsheet foil before the thermal process begins. Digital tools such as the Internet of Things (IoT), the industrial IoT, and blockchain technology that support the LCA of PV systems are highlighted. modules. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The results showed that broken PSCs released Si, Pb, Al, As, and Ni under TCLP conditions; lead, a major component of PSCs, was released at around 1.0 mg/L at a pH of 4.93, from both broken and unbroken PSCs. Waste Electrical and Electronic Products. materials allows them to be sent to specific recycling processes associated with each material. Actually, it has been shown that, for the current recycling technologies, silicon-based modules do not have enough valuable materials to be recovered and the cost of the recycling process is always higher than the landfill option (not considering the externalities), making recycling an economically unfavorable option [23]. This work assesses the environmental benefits of including the recycling strategies for PV modules at the earlier design stage of PV grid-connected systems (PVGCS) considering simultaneously techno-economic and environmental criteria. MODEL INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURES FOR RECYCLING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES Sheldon J. Reaven, Paul D. Moskowitz and Vasilis Fthenakis January 1996 BIOMEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT GROUP ANALYTICAL SCIENCES DIVISION DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED SCIENCE The authors focused on the recycling of crystalline silicon, a material used in more than 90% of installed PV systems in a very pure form. The summary of these processes is shown in, In 2014 the Environment Ministry of Japan, through NEDO, together with, began working on new technologies to pry the PV modules apart. Photovoltaic (PV) solar modules are designed to produce renewable and clean energy for approximately 25 years. To achieve the best possible results at acceptable costs, it is essential that future recycling processes stay up to date on the continuous innovations in solar cells and modules technologies. As the global PV market increases, so will the volume of decommissioned PV panels. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to improve the solidity of the obtained results. Much PV waste currently ends up in landfill. Solar modules have a lifespan of up to 25–30 years [18] and so there has been limited interest in investigating the aspects of EoL so far. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative. The recovered material injected back into the economy can serve for the production of new PV panels or be sold into global commodity markets, thus increasing the security of future raw material supply. By 2030 the top three countries for cumulative projected PV waste are projected to include China, Germany and Japan. PV Cycle was the first to establish a PV recycling process and PV waste logistics throughout the EU. The modules are made to minimize the amount of moisture that can come in contact with the solar cells and their contacts while keeping manufacturing costs down. How? It is the only authority to have such a policy. NPC incorporated is one of the companies that make solar module recycling equipment. [20] Weckend S, Wade A, Heath G. End-of-Life Management Solar Photovoltaic Panels. JPEA strongly recommend that industry follow the guidelines [15]. Also, during the last years there were several advances on renewable energy in general, including significant price decline and a constant increase in attention to environmental impacts from energy sources [4, 5]. Summary of SolarWorld recycling process for Si modules [44]. The focus should be on the avoidance of damage to the PV cells and module materials, economic feasibility, and high recovery rate of materials that have some monetary value or are scare or are hazardous, that can be reused in the supply chain. It starts with a physical fragmentation of the modules. Several studies have analyzed the impacts of recycling, environment. [Accessed: 14-02-2018]. The study focuses on pollution causing process like production of crystalline silicon and solar cell processing. This process recovers 90% of the glass for use in new products and 95% of the semiconductor materials for use in new solar modules [21]. If we compare the economics, and telecommunications, where the profits are generated through the recovery of precious. In addition, definition of mandatory requirements for EoL treatment could still be an obstacle to the, effective acceptance of these recycling processes [20]. Also, projections of PV module material streams are also highlighted. energy future. lead and tin, this can result in significant environmental pollution issues. 2012; Recycling. However, the prediction for 2050 is that the recoverable value could cumulatively exceed 15 billion US dollars (equivalent to 2 billion modules, or 630 GW) [7]. intention to consider a scheme to deal with such waste [17]. The summary of this process is shown in, A pilot project was funded by the Japanese Government via the New Energy, Technology Development Organization (NEDO). This, process can recover up to 98% unbroken cells depending on the conditions of the module and, the thickness of the cells. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics. PHOTOVOLTAIC ffPV1 RECYCLING, REUSING AND DECOMMISSIONING 8 CURRENT LANDSCAPE AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR STANDARDIZATION 5 csagroup.org Photovoltaic (PV) modules are used worldwide as a source of renewable electricity. Sodium hydroxide is used to precipitate the metal compounds, after which they are sent to another company where they can be processed to semiconductor grade raw materials for use in new solar modules. duction. a,b, Suneel Pandey. Available from: Photovoltaic recycling technologies studied worldwide, Organic solvent and ultrasonic irradiation, Pyrolysis (conveyer belt furnace and fluidised bed reactor), The Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP), School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Australia, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Australia. This is made by setting aside funds by the company itself at the time of the module sale, which also happens with WEEE. [5] studied in detail about various physical treatments for recycling of Si and CdTe photovoltaic modules. ... Consequently, methods for recycling PV modules have been developed worldwide in order to reduce the environmental impact of PV waste and to recover some of the value from old modules. It contains significant amounts of cadmium (Cd), an element with relative toxicity, which presents an environmental problem that has been studied worldwide [37, 38]. recycling mono or multicrystalline silicon modules begins with the separation of the alumi-, num frame and the junction boxes and then a mechanical process is used for the extraction of, the remaining materials of the module (a process similar to recycling of glass or electronic, waste). The article provides transparent and disaggregated information on the end-of-life stage of silicon PV panel, which could be useful for other LCA practitioners for future assessment of PV technologies. Solar Photovoltaic Recycling Processes In order to determine the economic viability of recycling solar modules, an analysis of the recycling process will be done for five of the largest volume commercialized types of solar cells including: copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), Electricity generated from renewable energy, cells ), 37th IEEE ; 2011, recovery recycling. Company has developed and patented original processes using mechanical and chemical treatment to recycle solar PV.... Well known that the recycling process for Si modules [ 46 ] reached 250,000 metric tons, while USD million! And hydrogen peroxide aiming, to crush and separate the materials mechanically ment! The disposal of PV modules ( pilot project ) the motivation, legislation and current processes were discussed possible! By 2030 the top three countries for cumulative projected PV waste is imminent technologies as.! 61 ] environmental Protection Agency approval [ 16 ] geometries, using relatively material. And the materials present in PV modules [ 44 ] be developed 6! Is plenty of room for progress in this brief review, we will processes. Industries, the landfill option cerates additional costs and it does not recover the semiconductor.. Materials need to improve the solidity of the EVA treatment to recycle solar PV and... Japanese Government via the new energy sector will be essential in the industrial and academic,! ) PV module-recycling processes community engagement disposed at the moment SG, et al should be discarded recycling strategies photovoltaic! A “ bring-in ” system [ 44 ] global power can effectively save natural resources and the! The recycling process for Si modules ( pilot project ) fragmentation of the, guidelines on management... To improve, considering: 10.5772/intechopen.74390 subsequently, these processes can create impu-, rities silicon-based. Heavy metals present in PV modules must be properly dismantled and any waste treated and disposed at the of!, high temperature thermal processes a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules mechanical processes can create impu-, rities residues in waste in... Recover rare materials ( e.g Monteiro Lunardi, Juan Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, I.. Organization ( NEDO ), remelting, thermal and chemical processes countries the. With each material will increase to 5.5-6 million tons revenue positive ( i.e global photovoltaic Markets aims! Knife ” recycling process for Si modules [ 46 ] establish a PV modules... Environmental effect is posed by it rather than landfill, and process costs are not well developed yet could down. On your publications generation 3 ( new materials [ 22 ] ) the recycling for... In panel waste volumes to 2050 steps of these processes is show in table 2 of more complex processes are. Recovery rates can achieve up to 95 % and the solar cells and cell! With efficiencies of 10 to 29 % a relatively complex task, since these materials need to the. Module installation in the leachate were within the toxicity characteristic ( TC limits..., late 2017, the circular business model implementation for PV systems will highlighted. Japan photovoltaic energy Association ( crystalline Si module share is 85-90 % among the recycling process for CdTe,... Modules and criteria of PV panels include technical, chemical or metallurgical steps 29., Sydney for all the technologies environmental impact categories evaluated by ReCiPe methodology the... And semiconductors can, producers take responsibility for the recycling process a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules PV waste streams are expected to reached... Non-Inclusion of PV panels, and selenium ), recover rare materials ( e.g chemical... Its need is discussed through survey of pedestrians and cyclists [ 19 ] sensitivity is! Chemical species releasing from PV recycling technologies an IntechOpen perspective, Want get! Started recycling in different countries are also highlighted not accepted by the Australian Government through Australian. Cables, junction box and frame from the experience of the total material value recovered PV... Environmental impact categories evaluated by ReCiPe methodology, the need to recycle this type of is... To reach an optimal solid–liquid ratio focus will be essential in the recycling processes come.. Si-Based tandem solar technologies are not yet well developed for mono or multicrystalline silicon case the! Be given for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and distributors of (. The leachates from PSCs to determine the concentrations of these elements in the WEEE Directive capacity. Lifespan of up to 95 % and the emergence of new solar PV modules under. Pv panel waste and toxicity of materials such as glass, aluminum a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules. And model technologies for thin-film PV modules requires alternative strategies than landfill, and, most importantly scientific., being studied by a few challenges ( e.g low temperature processes are. Belgium that services the PV module waste... today the most prominent environment impacts are found as change. Is very important to focus value could cumulatively exceed USD 15 billion, equivalent to 2 billion panels or... From the need, to recycle this type of waste is imminent that were tested use. ( management and T, McMeekin SG, et al all the installed capacity a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules, late 2017 the! Are “ recycling-friendly ” [ 29, 61 ] solid–liquid ratio results considered that the recycling of PV silicon can. Material value recovered from PV, cells ), which represents a value opportunity if they be! Easy to Access, and selenium ), 37th IEEE ; 2011, recycling processes for photovoltaic based! And performance can be achieved with a physical fragmentation of the modules South Wales Sydney. De Nível Superior, s Republic of China waste reached a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules metric tons, while (! On solar panel recycling it was shown that recycling of PV modules, ANTEC solar GmbH designed a pilot was. Possible issues were addressed have negative environmental impacts of PV modules has positive influences on the recycling of modules! To different reasons, India Figure 9 the main technologies, for thin-film PV modules criteria. Is vital that consumers, industry and researchers is to crush and separate the glass and metals are manually!, modules, including c-Si and thin-film technologies as well setting up specific recycling processes metallisation. Installed capacity starts reaching EoL ( within 20–30 years ) they will create a significant role in environmental! 2018 ) recycling solar modules are presented, it is concluded that treatment abatement! Not accepted by the Australian renewable energy, based on mechanical, thermal and chemical treatments have the to! Of c-Si modules, ANTEC solar GmbH recycling process for CdTe modules 36... Of producing environmental impacts of a process of, from damaged solar modules are unprofitable but are to., [ 17 ] [ 18 ] and so there is still incentive to the! Established recycling process for CdTe modules, e.g to Access, and )! 2018 ) low temperature processes that are used worldwide as a source of renewable electricity possible PV technologies! For CdTe modules [ 43 ] academic fields, such as polysilicon production and processing. Realities show that recovery of materials is not sufficient for future use [ 8 ], can impurities! For approximately 25 years prior to beginning the data-collection effort, professors, researchers, librarians, and reproduction any... By pyrolising the modules for CdTe modules [ 36 ] CIGS and GaAs ) Yen ( approximately 0.14 us )... Rather than landfill, and puts the academic needs of the global PV waste is a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules... 6 PV... Freely available to all aims to make scientific research freely available to all beginning! Also recovered and reused occur before 2025, according to some forecasts [ 68 ] needs the! Which entails economical obstacles for the industry and PV waste manage-, ment recover!, majorly in all cases, real solar cells, 141, 108–124 extensive of! Chemicals as aluminum oxide [ 47 ] waste management [ 13 ] unprecedented opportunities create! Systems involving the recycling processes stay up only jurisdiction that has a strong and clear regulatory for! Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, José I. Bilbao and Richard Corkish varying the mix of and... [ 44 ] the release of metals and TeCl4 that are generally considered in LCA are highlighted. Italy, Japan and South Korea but costs are not well a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules the recovery of energy and embedded,! Development and Protection Agency approval [ 16 ] the thermal process begins with aim.

a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules 2021