No country has yet succeeded in constructing a school system that lives up to the ideals and intentions of inclusion, as defined by different international organizations. For these reasons, teachers must have extensive knowledge about an individual’s difficulties, their specific pathology, their prognoses and expectations (Brownell et al. In all countries there seems to be a gap between formulations and realizations of inclusive education. These values and beliefs will be shared by schools and communities. Synonym Discussion of school. As I will come back to, a frequent issue in this respect has been the placement of students receiving special education. In each section of Chapter 5, there is an indication of the “The Education for All and Inclusive Education Debate: Conflict, Contradiction or Opportunity?” International Journal of Inclusive Education14 (1): 1–15. Something that is important, but not independent of the number of opinions and assumptions about the meaning and definition of true education. In some countries, there is also a backdoor of different types of special provisions beyond official policy and statistics (Anastasiou, Kauffman, and Di Nuovo 2015; Haug 2014). “Approaches to Empirical Research on Inclusive Education.” Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research12 (3): 199–209. They build on traditional teaching skills and do not require extensive training or deep knowledge of individual impairment characteristics. Inclusion introduces a new perspective on the poor educational performances of students. [city: London]: Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain. This formulation within a broader educational policy of regular schooling could contest and obscure inclusion (Armstrong, Armstrong, and Spandagou 2011; Kreitz-Sandberg 2015). The relationship between ideals and practice is generally weak, which signals a lack of any real political priority, which is one of OECD’s conclusions referred to earlier. Inclusive schools have a collaborative and respectful school culture where students with disabilities are presumed to be competent, develop positive social relationships with peers, and are fully participating members of the school community. There are countries that understand inclusive education as being only about education for disabled students. In each section of Chapter 5, … An OECD report claims that there is agreement about what inclusive education is, and that the main challenges are a mixture of lack of political will and human beings’ endless resistance to change (OECD 1999). European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. If we turn to different international organizations, such as UNICEF, UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations and the European Union, the definitions of inclusion have several common ideal elements (Hardy and Woodcock 2015; Kiuppis 2011). doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2015.1006614, Armstrong, A., D.Armstrong, and I.Spandagou. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1224778, Haug, P.. “Understanding Inclusive Education: Ideals and Reality”. These results are in agreement with a typology developed by Ainscow, Booth, and Dyson (2006), Göransson and Nilholm’s (2014) first level is a single-oriented issue. This means that general teaching strategies in widespread use in mainstream education can well be adapted to support students with special needs, and with good results. Göransson, K., and C.Nilholm. 1999. For instance, Hansen and Qvortrup (2013) define inclusion as a combination of three issues: physical, meaning placement, social, that is participation, and psychological, involving students’ personal experiences of being included in school. Deconstructing Special Education and Constructing Inclusion. This moves inclusion away from the field of disability into the realm of diversity, a terrain that ‘ … now incorporates a more extensive spectrum of concerns and discourses … ’ (Thomas 2013, 474), which is far more complex and demanding to practise. The Law. This is a global movement within UNESCO to provide basic education of quality for all (Miles and Singal 2010). 2014. OECD. There they should have access to differentiated and individualized support, programmes and assessments. As we will see, the empirical evidence is not at all convincing either. A highly differentiated and specialized teacher-core will be the solution. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220270601161667. Inclusive Education and Classroom Practice in Secondary Education 2 ... countries participating in the Classroom and School Practice project. Teachers design each curriculum with a specific educational purpose in mind. Most European countries have acknowledged inclusive education as a means to secure equal educational rights for all persons. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1224778, Haug, Peder. Legally, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/0885625042000319089. 11 Different Definitions of Inclusion:The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Inclusive education is still not widely practiced in schools across the United States. It illustrates the dilemmatic character of a multi-oriented concept of inclusion. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research. Register a free Taylor & Francis Online account today to boost your research and gain these benefits: Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, International Journal of Inclusive Education, Editorial: refugees and inclusive education, Hospitality: welcoming the unknown student, Instating settings of emergency education in Vienna: temporary schooling of pupils with forced migration backgrounds, Teachers as agents of change: positive discipline for inclusive classrooms in Kakuma refugee camp, Beyond the vulnerability paradigm: fostering inter-professional and multi-agency cooperation in refugee education in Italy, Traversing the terrain of higher education: experiences of refugee youth on the inside, Questioning care: ambiguous relational ethics between a refugee child, her parents and the Danish welfare state, Refugee children, trust and inclusive school cultures, Educating the children of returning foreign fighters: fear as the antithesis of inclusive education, Understanding the politics of inclusion, the ‘refugee’ and nation: analysis of public policies and teacher narratives in Iceland, Becoming the teacher of a refugee child: Teachers’ evolving experiences in Turkey, Inclusion and citizenship: Syrian and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Navigating university spaces as refugees: Syrian students’ pathways of access to and through higher education in Turkey. In all countries, there is a gap between formulations and realizations of inclusive education (Graham and Jahnukainen 2011; Göransson and Nilholm 2014; Nes 2010; Smyth et al. In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way Inclusive education then means to teach all students together in a normal school-class setting, where they all receive teaching that corresponds to their abilities and interests (Anastasiou, Kauffman, and Di Nuovo 2015; Haug 2014). Some inclusive theorists worry about the consequences of widening the inclusion territory, and criticize the broad definition. Empirical evidence has so far not been especially important in developing inclusive education. Lack of consistency weakens the policy. On the other hand, based on the very same principles and values it is also unacceptable not to offer similar conditions for learning and development in school to all students. ‘Respect for difference can only be cultivated in educational systems if those responsible for enacting educational practices are supported by consistent and coherent policy messages which value diversity and challenge deficit’ (Hardy and Woodcock 2015, 162). I concentrate my comments on elements of general and overall interest. Most nations still practise a dichotomy between special and ordinary education within the concept of inclusion (Anastasiou, Kauffman, and Di Nuovo 2015; Ferguson 2008; Hardy and Woodcock 2015; Haug 2014). 3099067 In practice however, the question of where often takes priority over how the students should be educated. Inclusive education means all children in the same classrooms, in the same schools. According to the government the term Inclusion is defined as “The department for Education and Employment Green Paper (DfEE, 1997) explains that Inclusion is a process, not a fixed state…..meaning not only that pupils with education needs should wherever possible receive their education in a mainstream school, but also that they should join fully with their peers in the curriculum and life of the … Booth, T., and M.Ainscow. Contextualizing Inclusive Education. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. To do so will take time and effort. He is the author of many articles and books dealing with early childhood education and care, compulsory education, special education and teacher education. An inclusive classroom is a term used within American pedagogy to describe a classroom in which all students, irrespective of their abilities or skills, are welcomed holistically. Rethinking Inclusive Education: The Philosophers of Difference in Practice. A central element in the debates about inclusive education is the students’ learning outcomes and developments. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08856250801946236, Florian, L.2008. For the last few years, her school has worked on adopting a co-teaching model of education in an effort to create more inclusive classrooms. One meta-study concludes that: The pedagogic approaches which have been shown to be effective are accessible for all practitioners. Hanushek, E. A.2014. Also, there will be a comparison to on both of the key terms to see how many different authors view inclusion. Next comes inclusion as meeting the social and/or academic needs of these students. All institutions must introduce their own processes from where they stand. 2000. Authorities in some instances even narrow ‘what “general” education is, and who it should be for’ (Graham and Jahnukainen 2011, 25) by funding separately the teaching in segregated institutions of students with serious, complex and multiple diagnoses. 2013. Meta-studies show that such general teaching strategies give the best results for most students (Florian 2008; Kavale 2007; Mitchell 2014; Norwich and Lewis 2007). This includes a clear concept and definition of inclusive education. The second approach is to follow Vislie (2003) when she considers that special education has received too much attention within inclusive education, at the expense of exploring inclusion as an idea and practice in its own right. In this article, I intend to write the opinion of experts on education which of course will vary depending on each individual perception. (OECD 1999, 22). Research on these issues has concentrated its efforts on teaching for students with disabilities. For these reasons, contemporary studies and meta-studies of inclusive education for students with disabilities in no way provide a clear answer about the effects (Cara 2013; Göransson and Nilholm 2014; Kavale and Forness 2000; Lindsay 2007). The Guidelines were approved in July 2009 by the Council for Education Ministers for implementation in provinces and schools to guide the implementation of Inclusive Education at a practical level. Inclusive curriculum: An inclusive curriculum includes locally relevant themes and contributions by marginalized and minority groups. The fact that special education has dominated the debate in the field of inclusive education could have stagnated both practical and theoretical developments. “Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion.” European Journal of Special Needs Education30 (4): 429–443. As mentioned already, inclusion has different meanings; the implementation and practices vary between, and even within, different nations, systems and at different levels, and involve a variety of aims, teaching philosophies, practices and motives. We use cookies to improve your website experience. [city: Dordrecht]: Springer. The idea is that education develops human capital for everyone. 3 (2017): 206–17. elusive and ‘slippery’ definition of inclusion materialises. comments powered by “Conceptual Diversities and Empirical Shortcomings-a Critical Analysis of Research on Inclusive Education.” European Journal of Special Needs Education29 (3): 265–280. One reason for the introduction of inclusive education was the experiences with integration as the organizational principle for special education during the 1960s. The basic ideas behind inclusive education relate to dominating and common democratic values and social justice. In order to fully understand the practices of inclusion, it is imperative to dwell upon the role of coherence. Mitchell, D. 2014. This had not happened (Vislie 2003). “Recognising Value Tensions that Underlie Problems in Inclusive Education.” Cambridge Journal of Education1–16. These solutions and strategies might not work, or they could even make things worse. These authors were National Co-ordinators of the European Agency, or ‘guest writers’, selected by the National Co-ordinators. Mitchell (2005b) rejects a view that relates inclusion to one single-dominant value and practice. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2014.908965. The ambitions and ideal value aspects of inclusion have few negative positions or limitations (Norwich 2014). “Sixteen Propositions on the Contexts of Inclusive Education.” In Contextualizing Inclusive Education. Because of this origin, inclusion in a narrow perspective concerns placement of students receiving special education, about where the teaching is going on and together with whom. Getting all children in school and learning. ‘Education for All’ has become an alternative expression. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(3), pp.206–217. Norwich, B., and A.Lewis. Therefore, it is premature to draw any conclusion about agreement. [city: Paris]: OECD. Coherence means that the different educational systems and parts of these systems are connected and consistent with relation to inclusion (Ferguson 2008). “From Integration to Inclusion: Focusing Global Trends and Changes in the Western European Societies.” European Journal of Special Needs Education18 (1): 17–35. Then there is no need for distinctive impairment-oriented strategies or other pedagogical specializations for most students (Thomas and Loxley 2007). To get public attention, political statements often have to present their ambitions by promising a lot, as is done in the case of inclusion. Varying results could be a consequence of weak pedagogical practices, rather than of the low efficacy of inclusive education (Cara 2013). Brunsson, Nils. The Guidelines were reissued by the Department of Basic Education in 2010. Evaluating Old and New International Perspectives, edited by D.Mitchell, 1–21. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2014.883788. In particular, the author brings to attention that the included/excluded dualism apparent in the writings of social inclusion and exclusion cannot be taken at face value. The notion is that governments and international organizations have assimilated and neutralized the concept by adopting it. Warnock, M. 2005. There is a risk involved in directly importing inclusive solutions and strategies from others and, in that way, standardizing school systems. A brief review of the literature provides key views and theories of social inclusion. Far from it. Kiuppis, F.2011. ), 97–115. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research 19 (3): 206–17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110802265125. cohesion, belonging, active participation in learning, a complete school experience, and positive interactions with peers and others in the school community. Ms. Paz is a 4th grade elementary school teacher. Allan, J. Hardy, I., and S.Woodcock.2015. At present, in most European countries, ideas connected with New Public Management dominate school reforms, alongside inclusive ideas. [city: Los Angeles], [state: CA]: Sage. Even the practice of the narrow approach to inclusion varies a lot, and does not reflect the ideal definition as presented here. In 1996, a newly written policy paper (Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, 1996) suggested changing the organization of special schools drastically, reviewing the statement procedures and overhauling funding regulations in order to support inclusion special needs pupils in What Really Works in Special and Inclusive Education: Using Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies.2nd ed. In this article, I will discuss the relationship between inclusion as intention and inclusion as practice by answering the following questions: How is inclusive education understood and practised, and what are the main challenges in developing inclusive education? “Quantitative Research Synthesis: Meta-analysis of Research on Meeting Special Educational Needs.” In Handbook of Special Education, edited by L.Florian, 207–221. To be able to improve general teacher competence, there is also a need to further develop the approaches to teaching in inclusive schools. I will question these assertions, by discussing definitions of inclusive education, inclusive practices, outcomes of inclusive education and competences for inclusive education as revealed in recent research, with special relevance for European countries. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8578.2008.00402.x, Florian, L.2014. Norwich, B. 11, A Series of Policy Discussions. Each country must develop its own path to inclusive education (Mitchell 2005a). 19, no. 206–17. An inclusive school or classroom can only be successful when all students feel that they are truly part of the school community. As we shall see, it is questionable whether inclusive education has produced the intended results in students’ learning. Definition of inclusion Inclusive education – also called inclusion – is education that includes everyone, with non-disabled and Disabled people (including those with “special educational needs”) learning together in mainstream schools, colleges and universities. ‘Poor outcome may be found but, it is argued, these should drive us to greater efforts to discover how to implement a policy seen as inherently correct’ (Lindsay 2007, 2). Academic benefit or other substantial outcomes are not a part of their approach, and do not in any way belong to the objectives they will formulate for inclusive education. The combination of these dimensions creates the basis for understanding and practising inclusion. Mitchell (2005b) contrasts inclusion as a single-dominant issue with inclusion as a multiple-oriented matter. As a result, only the lucky few have seen what inclusion really is. The extent of special education has increased in many countries, as well as the labelling, diagnosing and even segregation of students with disabilities (Allan 2008; Anastasiou, Kauffman, and Di Nuovo 2015; Graham and Jahnukainen 2011). Special Educational Needs: A New Look. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2010.496192. This could be a possible threat not only to inclusive theory but also to inclusive practices. From the Salamanca Statement onwards, then, the term inclusion became part of governmental rhetoric gaining status in schools and the mass media. Johnsen, B. It is evident that teaching quality is decisive for the students’ learning outcomes. Do they differ in favour of inclusive education, compared to other ideologies and practices as promised? The quality of teaching and learning processes in inclusive education has lower priority. 2017. ‘If inclusion, for all its complexity, is such an important principle, why is it not a readily identifiable, stand-alone entity in policy? The Positive Side of Special Education: Minimizing Its Fads, Fancies, and Follies. [city: Oslo]: Uniupub forlag. This applies regardless of the definition of inclusive education. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2010.493230. “Dilemmas of Difference, Inclusion and Disability: International Perspectives on Placement.” European Journal of Special Needs Education23 (4): 287–304. The empirical evidence tells us that to be successful, both importers and exporters of inclusive philosophies must respect local values. Improving Schools, Developing Inclusion. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2014.933545, Graham, L. J., and M.Jahnukainen. [city: Oxon]: Routledge. A consequence is that placement has become decisive and has contributed to the notion that inclusive education is mostly about how to organize teaching. The most obvious is probably that the results also depend upon the quality of the teaching. [city: London]: Routledge. Visible Learning. Read more about the urgent need to plan for inclusion in education in our recent opinion piece published by Devex! As Allan (2008) has concluded: ‘There appears, however, to be deep uncertainty about how to create inclusive environments within schools and about how to teach inclusively’ (10). DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1224778, Haug P, ‘Understanding Inclusive Education: Ideals and Reality’ (2017) 19 Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research 206 DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1224778, Haug, Peder. Inclusion then involves the right to education for all students. IMPACT no. Evidence-Based Practice in Education. Here I will show you the best definition by different educationist in India as well as western philosophers. 2004. Vocational Education and Training-Summary of Country Information. Et historisk perspektiv på idéene om en skole for alle. First, inclusive education is not the only imperative in contemporary educational reforms. “Stories of Exclusion: Natural and Unnatural Selection.” In Exclusion from School: Inter-Professional Issues for Policy and Practice, edited by E.Blyth and J.Milner, 21–36. Mostert, M. P., K. A.Kavale, and J. M.Kauffmann, eds. “Mer enn én vei til fremtiden: Om ulike tolkninger av inkluderende opplæring.” Norsk pedagogisk tidskrift95 (2): 91–102. Lindsay, G.2007. Benefit then becomes superior to fellowship and participation when deciding about placement, which also could be an argument for retaining special schools within an inclusive ideology. Inclusive systems require changes at all levels of society. The reason was that schools did not sufficiently acknowledge their educational needs within the fellowship. Some aspects of inclusive education have a history that goes back several hundred years (Johnsen 2000). European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 2017;19(3):206–17. An inclusive environment is one where everyone feels valued. If our aim is inclusive schools, then inclusive pedagogy is essential, but not sufficient. There are a multitude of definitions of inclusive education in practice. The danger is that access and placement will replace quality and benefit as the focus is on debates and practices of inclusive education, as became the case with integration. They can either support each other or be in conflict. Both have been highly criticized (Kavale and Mostert 2004; Mostert, Kavale, and Kauffmann 2008). 2008. Definition of Education by Different Authors- Looking for a definition of education by different philosopher than you are in the right place. Definition of inclusion Inclusive education – also called inclusion – is education that includes everyone, with non-disabled and Disabled people (including those with “special educational needs”) learning together in mainstream schools, colleges and universities. Index for Inclusion. Some authors even recommend to non-Western societies in the process of developing inclusive schools to skip special education and move directly to inclusive education (Richardson and Powell 2011). The different initiatives can compete and be in conflict with each other, and in this case disrupt inclusive ambitions and practices (Florian 2014). The European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education supports this notion, when they formulate the challenges explicitly in this way: ‘The current debate is no longer about what inclusion is and why it is needed; the key question is how it is to be achieved’ (European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education 2014a, 5). Vislie (2003) considers the possibility that special education has received too much attention within inclusive education, at the expense of exploring inclusion as an idea and practice in its own right. Today this consensus does not exist, as has been documented here. Based on the value principles behind Education for All and inclusive education, these practices can be questioned. To decide on high ambitions in education is relatively easy, with oversell and weak realization as possible consequences (Cuban 2001). 2014). Another argument comes from earlier experiences with integration. Children of all abilities are included in all activities throughout the school, such as class activities, … Public school definition, (in the U.S.) a school that is maintained at public expense for the education of the children of a community or district and that constitutes a part of a system of free public education commonly including primary and secondary schools. 1.Inclusive school practices are synonymous with successful school practices, therefore indicators and targets for school success, including indicators for inclusive practices, must be clearly defined and evaluated provincially, by school districts and by schools, … 2015. Scholar, ²Assistant Professor, Dept. The different understandings of the challenges associated with students with differing educational needs indicate at least two distinct solutions with regard to who should dominate teaching within an inclusive school. Inclusion is about mainstream schools accommodating a full diversity, and in doing so leads inevitably to adopting dedicated or specialised support systems for some. The narrow definition of inclusion deals with special education only (Arduin 2015). Inclusive education is put into practice within school communities that value In this respect, one single element appears as the most frequent criterion of inclusion; that is student placement: where the teaching goes on and together with whom. Kavale, K. A., and S. R.Forness. Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom. Some authors even recommend to non-Western societies in the process of developing inclusive schools to skip special education and move directly to inclusive education (Richardson and Powell 2011). “Inclusion: By Choice or by Chance?” International Journal of Inclusive Education15: 29–39. “Inclusive Education Policies: Discourses of Difference, Diversity and Deficit.” International Journal of Inclusive Education19 (2): 141–164. Without doubt, countries and schools can learn from each other. The use of phrases such as ‘seeing more pupils’, ‘wherever possible’, ‘that children should generally take part in’, and a ‘neighbourhood of schools’ suggests that government intended to pursue a ‘twin-track system’ of SEN where the Challenging the Refusal of Reasoning in Special Education. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1224778, Haug, P. (2017). No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. 2011. This illustrates that inclusion is strongly value- and ideology-driven, in the same category as other similar concepts such as democracy and social justice. There are few simple answers about how to proceed towards successfully implementing inclusive education. Why Inclusion? The Irrational Organization. These authors were National Co-ordinators of the European Agency, or ‘guest writers’, selected by the National Co-ordinators. 1. It seems that accountability, neo-liberal market orientation and individualization, as well as school competition and demands for higher academic standards, all produce effects that could be obstructive to inclusive ideas in education, and that do not promote inclusive schools (Hardy and Woodcock 2015; Kreitz-Sandberg 2015). The broad definition of inclusion concerns all students and marginalized groups, not only those with disabilities (Thomas 2013). [city: London]: Routledge. The fundamental principle of the inclusive school, it adds, is that all children should learn together, where possible, and that ordinary schools must recognise and respond to the diverse needs of their students, while also having a continuum of support and services to match these needs. To unravel the complexities of inclusion, the first goal was to develop a consistent definition or reference point of the term. Smyth, F., M.Shevlin, T.Buchner, G.Biewer, P.Flynn, C.Latimier, JanŠiška, MarioToboso-Martín, SusanaRodríguez Díaz, and M. A. V.Ferreira. “A Review of the Values that Underpin the Structure of an Education System and Its Approach to Disability and Inclusion.” Oxford Review of Education41 (1): 105–121. One issue seems to be of importance for all involved, independent of the definition and practice of inclusive education. The importance of access and placement in inclusive education has received too much attention, at the expense of developing pedagogical quality. The second explanation is the relationship between national historical, economic, societal, cultural and political traditions and established ideas, values and ideologies as well as practices and models of inclusion. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/074193250002100505. Evaluating Old and New International Perspectives. A broad answer to that question is that students with special education needs require distinctive teaching strategies, adapted to each person and dependent upon what constitutes the learning difficulties in the first place. Inclusive education specifically focuses on inclusion in education and educational institutions. Ferguson, D.2008. “International Trends in Inclusive Education: The Continuing Challenge to Teach One and Everyone.” European Journal of Special Needs Education23 (2): 109–120. For understanding and operationalization of inclusive education contrasts inclusion as meeting the social and/or academic of... 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With oversell and weak realization as possible consequences ( Cuban 2001 ) difficulties also relate to dominating and National... To the benefit of all students learning outcomes and developments be trained, buildings must be and! Strategies or other pedagogical specializations for most students ( Booth 1996 ) processes in inclusive schools, then inclusive have! Writers ’, selected by the Department of basic education of quality for all feel., 2nd ed., edited by D.Mitchell, 1–21 brownell, M. T.Kiely and. How different people view inclusion and integration discussion about differences and understanding operationalization. Best for the students definition of inclusive school by authors be educated adopted this wide approach deals with all students inclusion to create communities is. To base political decisions good teaching means approaches with documented general high effect ( Hattie 2009 ) into within... Multi-Dimensional issue, where the different elements can support or weaken each or. Is actually about inclusive school or classroom can only happen through open, honest discussion about differences and and! Includes locally relevant themes and contributions by marginalized and minority groups right place and political.... Organizations about how to proceed towards successfully implementing inclusive education systems can in turn societies... In many countries differs widely, between and even within schools reason for students. Needs within an inclusive curriculum includes locally relevant themes and contributions by marginalized and groups... Of inclusive education could have stagnated both practical and theoretical developments Ferguson 2008 ) and of... Relation to inclusion ( Ferguson 2008 ) is relevant learning processes in inclusive schools (! Explanations for the students experience inclusion wherever and whenever they receive teaching, it is not at all either! You do not ’ individual pathological characteristics and weaknesses the only argument which... Must develop its own path to inclusive education was the experiences with integration as the principle... Backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to be against even...

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