SpaceX did not respond to requests for comment for this story. She is a co-investigator on the Cassini UVIS instrument, was a co-investigator on the Galileo UVS instrument, is a Participating Scientist on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LAMP instrument and is a Principal Investigator on Hubble Space Telescope observing programs. Huygens also measured radio signals during its descent that strongly suggested the presence of an ocean 35 to 50 miles (55 to 80 kilometers) below the moon’s surface. Elon Musk wants to do it anyway. If humans do eventually land on Mars, they would not arrive alone. Titan also receives about 1% as much sunlight as Earth. Standard & Poor's and S&P are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC and Dow Jones is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC. The idea of terraforming arose from scientists who were kicking around ideas, Meyer said, but not from anyone who thought it was something humans could or should do. Colonizing could lead to destruction, so no. Again someone has announced a flawed plan to send people to Mars, this time the person is Denis Tito (who is famous for being the first space tourist). Colonizing other planets is a bad idea. By contrast, flying would be so easy, that even human-powered flight is possible. Weighing the costs and benefits is more of a philosopher's task than one might at first think, for two reasons. We should colonize Titan, instead. The Largest Alligator Ever Measured Musk, the company's CEO and chief engineer, refers to his interplanetary ambitions more like a sci-fi protagonist with a moral calling than an entrepreneur with a disruptive business plan. "There aren't native Martians," Zubrin said. 20 Amazing Crocodile Facts If Titan ever became a popular destination, congestion by flying bicycles, or fly cycles may become a real problem. (Polity, 2018) We are near to being able to attempt to colonize other planets in the solar system, especially Mars. To be clear: The story of American colonialism also included chattel slavery and the brutalization and erasure of many native populations. For example, it would pave our way for future exploration. It's SpaceX's Starship prototype, Watch this rocket launch from the wing of a jumbo jet, NASA releases never-before-seen images from Hubble Telescope, See this SpaceX rocket's fiery crash landing, Watch astronauts arrive at International Space Station, Baby Yoda hitches a ride to the International Space Station, 'Eight and a half minutes of terror': Analyst describes moments after liftoff, Meet the diverse astronauts flying SpaceX's next mission, See NASA spacecraft successfully land on an asteroid, SpaceX strapped a camera to a Falcon 9 rocket. Show more. Mars offers no natural protection against solar radiation and galactic cosmic rays. And, even more important, it is the only object in Solar System (and even in space, so far) other than Earth where clear evidence of stable bodies of surface liquid has been found. With a radius of 2575.5±2.0 km, Titan is the largest moon of Saturn. [T]he first argument against human travel to Mars: contamination. Why colonizing Mars is a bad idea. 10 Good Reasons Not to Colonize Mars. The dense atmosphere and low gravity mean that walking would be clumsier than on Earth, and wheeled vehicles would find less traction and more air resistance. It's not even clear if there are enough resources on Mars to make terraforming possible at all. But if you are working, what you could do is sell your labor for seven years. In the first, long chapter, which takes place in the future (a few hundred years from now), humans have colonized Titan and started doing mining business there. But she says Mars is not a good place for living for the long term. It appears normal these days for people to have their very own Mars programs, and unfortunately the mass media gives them more coverage than those fanatics deserve. Summary of Adam Morton Should we Colonize Other Planets? on Living on Mars is a terrible idea, scientist says. Hendrix says: “Titan, on the other hand, has got this natural shielding device, which is its nice, thick atmosphere.” She thinks the planet we should be looking into is Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. Musk has estimated Starship development will cost up to $10 billion, and Musk said Aug. 31 that SpaceX will look to launch "hundreds" of satellites aboard Starship before entrusting it with human lives. The Idea of Colonizing Mars Essay Sample. There is a … Mars offers no natural protection against solar radiation and galactic cosmic rays. Obviously, this article is focusing on how to make Mars livable for humans. The article was also published in National Geographic magazine in the year 2010. He noted. She is a senior scientist at the Planetary Science Institute, a research institute founded in 1972 and based in Tucson, Arizona, focusing on planetary science. It’s a clearer question than why because human motives are all over the map. "Good chance you'll die, and it's going to be tough going...It'd better be pretty glorious if it works out. But there's barely any oxygen in Mars' atmosphere. Analysis by Jackie Wattles, CNN Business. Why humans colonizing Mars is a good idea There are high chances of establishing a self-sustaining colony on Mars; a second home for us. By Allison Eck Friday, March 16, 2018 NOVA Next NOVA Next An MIT team designed the Redwood Forest, a … "I went in pretty skeptical of this... and coming away I was thinking, 'Well, [there are] some pretty reasonable ideas," he said, adding that he now embraces the idea that businesspeople could make space travel more accessible. "You'd need to use some alien technology. She was the Deputy Project Scientist for the Cassini-Huygens mission (2010-2012). A prototype of SpaceXs Starship is pictured at the company's Texas launch facility on September 28, 2019 in Boca Chica near Brownsville, Texas. There are no known resources on Mars that would be valuable enough to mine and sell back to Earthly businesses, Meyer said. Related: Terraforming Mars – why it is so hard? Musk, in a photo posted to his Instagram, wears one of SpaceX's "Occupy Mars" t-shirts. Musk's personal wealth has ballooned to about $100 billion — at least on paper — thanks in no small part to a. That tick atmosphere shelters its surface from the galactic cosmic rays and solar radiation. "If there's something terrible that happens on Earth, either made by humans or natural, we want to have, like, life insurance for life as a whole," Musk said during a virtual Mars, SpaceX's plans for a Red-Planet settlement bring up numerous, The last space program that came close to Musk's interplanetary travel ambitions was NASA's Apollo program, the mid-20th Century effort that landed six spacecraft and 12 astronauts on the moon. The main reason is radiation. All content of the Dow Jones branded indices Copyright S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC 2018 and/or its affiliates. Here’s the ultimate good-bad idea: the Dutch aerospace project is planning to send four humans to Mars in 2023 … and keep them there. In September 2017, Elon Musk, the founder and CEO of SpaceX has revealed a new plan to colonize Moon and Mars with giant reusable spaceships. and Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering Sciences from the University of Colorado Boulder. But, the proceeds would give them a one-way ticket. Austin, TX (CNN Business)Elon Musk has spent nearly two decades rallying SpaceX fans around his goal of colonizing Mars, something world governments aren't currently attempting — in part because of the unfathomable price tag such a mission will entail. Trillions of them. Brad Jones November 18th 2017 Psychological Problems. "I think 'Total Recall' has the right idea," he joked. They can easily be used for energy.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'ourplnt_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_3',195,'0','0'])); Cassini-Huygens, named after astronomers Giovanni Cassini and Christiaan Huygens, comprised both NASA’s Cassini probe and ESA’s Huygens lander which would be landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. The popular astronomer Neil deGrasse Tyson argues that it would stimulate the economy and inspire the next generation of scientists. ... to be establishing colonies on Mars, or any other place in space. Hendrix was a NASA astronaut candidate finalist in 2000. Bad idea because the humanity is destined to live in earth and people colonising Mars they are destroying life’s who live there (I am sure there are lots of different kind of life that we cannot study this yet because it is not our time to understand this) and people would change their … I write about the planet Earth and science on this website, ourplnt.com. For Titan, the propulsion will have to be much faster, as the trip currently takes seven years. She was awarded the Lew Allen Award for Excellence in 2006. That makes sense to you, doesn’t it? in Aeronautical Engineering from Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and an M.S. Walking or driving is not the way most transport would occur on Titan. Mars, the fourth planet from the sun, has days that are roughly as long as Earth days. ", Zubrin, who has worked with conservative think tanks but says he is not politically affiliated, also acknowledged that colonization can go hand-in-hand with exploitation: "If somebody says, 'But won't there be exploitation there?' And that begs the question: Is there money to be made on Mars? Author Of “The Martian” Says Colonizing Mars Is a Bad Idea "Establishing a colony on Mars is incredibly technically challenging and expensive." It's still unclear, for example, who Musk envisions as the first Mars settlers. Because, unlike Earth, Mars has a very thin atmosphere and no magnetosphere. Money-making ambitions aside, the idea that Mars could one day become home to a metropolis and — potentially — a tourist destination is acknowledged by mainstream scientists like Meyer, NASA's lead Mars expert. Space X and Tesla founder Elon Musk has a vision for colonising Mars, based on a big rocket, nuclear explosions and an infrastructure to transport millions of … Settlers on Mars will be forced to endure isolation on a magnitude which is … As … The atmosphere is mostly nitrogen. The company is in the early stages of developing its Starship, a massive rocket and spaceship system that Musk hopes will ferry cargo and convoys of people across the at-minimum 30 million-mile void between Earth and Mars. Musk has previously suggested that he agrees, noting that the resources on Mars would likely be valuable only to settlers hoping to build up industries on the planet. Without clearly defined objectives and agreements, SpaceX's colony could create a "contentious sphere of conflict," Williams said. First of all, Titan is so far away from Earth. The argument is not that colonizing planets is a bad idea, it's that colonizing Mars is a bad idea (at least right now) due to several factors which have a detrimental effect on the … But is Mars really the best place for humans to settle? ", (Musk has not expounded on his thoughts about colonialism, and he donates to both US. “Establishing a colony on Mars is incredibly technically challenging and expensive,” University of Michigan’s Aaron Ridley told Futurism. Meyer said that, 20 years ago, he attended a presentation about Mars business and tourism. The discovery of a global ocean of liquid water adds Titan to the handful of worlds in our solar system that could potentially contain habitable environments and extraterrestrial life. When I heard about Titan, I always recall Polish author Stanisław Lem’s 1986 novel named Fiasco. Well sure, that's what people do to each other all the time.". It is slightly bigger than our Moon (around 1.4 times – the radius of Moon is 1737 km or 1079 miles). "The values that we take with us into space exploration should be front and center," he added. We should colonize Titan, instead, Living on Mars is a terrible idea, scientist says. Dow Jones: The Dow Jones branded indices are proprietary to and are calculated, distributed and marketed by DJI Opco, a subsidiary of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and have been licensed for use to S&P Opco, LLC and CNN. Musk's use of the word "colonization" also belies a long history of Americans and other Western nations enriching themselves by exploiting and enslaving others. Is it a good idea? Largest Great White Sharks Ever Recorded NASA astronauts? It'd be an attempt to use the same greenhouse gases causing the climate crisis on our home planet to make Mars' atmosphere thicker, warmer and more hospitable to life. Top 6 Largest Fish Species "This competitive stance of expansion and exploration, it's not necessarily a bad thing," Williams, who also works with the advocacy group. The hypothetical colonization of Mars has received interest from public space agencies and private corporations, and has received extensive treatment in science fiction writing, film, and art.. Organizations have proposed plans for a human mission to Mars, the first step towards any colonization effort, but no person has set foot on the planet. Cassini’s numerous gravity measurements of Titan revealed that this moon is hiding internal, liquid water and ammonia ocean beneath its surface. Again someone has announced a flawed plan to send people to Mars, this time the person is Denis Tito (who is famous for being the first space tourist). ", But for at least the first 100 years that humans have a presence on Mars, the economic situation will be dubious, said Michael Meyer, the lead scientist for NASA's Mars Exploration Program, which recently launched the, Musk does have a plan for making Mars an attractive destination for long-term living: Terraforming, a hypothetical scenario in which humans make Mars more Earth-like by pumping gases into the atmosphere. Colonizing the moon could possibly lead to serious changes, both on the moon and on Earth. Except for the threads of Russian cosmism, the ideology of space colonization and exploitation is largely Western, and Christian, as noted above. Her research interests include moon and asteroid surface composition, space weathering effects and radiation products. 50 Amazing Facts about Earth, I am a software developer, a former road racing cyclist, and a science enthusiast. On the surface and in the atmosphere, there are vast quantities of hydrocarbons and complex organic chemicals in solid and liquid form. "If you look at Colonial America, a middle-class person could travel to America by liquidating their farm. EARTH DOESN'T NEED A 'BACKUP' PLANET. Aaah, someone finally directly asks the more fundamental question about human colonization of Mars: not how or who or when, but should. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Colonizing the moon, especially if the purpose is to use it as a sort of leap pad to go further into space, could result in an increased weight/mass of the moon. She thinks we should colonize Titan, instead of Mars because it is such a more appropriate environment for humans. All rights reserved. Cold. And there's an infinitesimally small amount of water, meaning it will be extremely difficult to grow crops, much less create a Mars-wide water cycle. The very effort of establishing a colony on Mars, which might necessitate thousands of flights of his rocket-powered space vehicles, raises concerns that it … She thinks we should go there, visit the planet and do science there. Seeing no way to get out of the machine and return to safety, he triggers a built-in cryogenic device.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'ourplnt_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_5',600,'0','0'])); Titan is the scene of the prelude of the novel. It is the only moon in the Solar System known to have a dense atmosphere. "It's not for the faint of heart. Please consider supporting me on. But the agency has not indicated how much the latter could cost, either. Unfortunately, one of the Cassini receivers failed due to a software error and caused the loss of another 350 pictures. Hendrix received a B.S. Home » Space Exploration » Living on Mars is a terrible idea, scientist says. It’s really, really cold on Titan, around -180°C (-291°F), but thanks to its dense atmosphere, residents wouldn’t need pressure suits. But Damien Williams — a teacher and PhD student at Virginia Tech who studies the intersection of advanced technologies, ethics and societies — warns that the stories we may tell ourselves about America and exploring outer space can leave out key context. Top 10 Largest Insects On Earth Ultra-wealthy thrill-seekers? ", In a recent interview with CNN Business, Zubrin stood by those ideas, arguing American colonization has worked. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Then by using what we learn from the colonization of the moon we can apply that knowledge to colonizing mars. ", "If somebody says, 'But won't there be exploitation there?' “Somebody like Elon Musk has got the resources, and the smarts to be able to work on Titan and to make a colony there happen and make the propulsion system happen. Top 6 Biggest Prehistoric Crocodiles They are ambitiously planning to send the first humans to Mars as early as 2024 to build the foundations for the first Martian city. Also an animal lover! A few hundred years more, a starship is built in Titan’s orbit and sent to a distant star in order to make the first contact with a civilization that may have been detected. It may sway your opinion. Zubrin again harkens back to the colonization of North America as an example of how would-be Mars colonists might fund their trip, either by liquidating their Earthly possessions to fund the trip or by "indentured servitude. All rights reserved. Titan’s atmosphere is denser than Earth’s, with a surface pressure about 1.45 atm (45% denser than Earth’s). Elon Musk may be disappointed by recent studies threatening his plans to go to Mars, ... but it’s now clear that colonising Mars is unlikely – and a bad idea August 2, 2018 6.11am EDT. Some scientists, like Amanda Hendrix Notes 1, the American planetary scientist, thinks it’s not, and we should be looking somewhere else and colonize Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, instead. Top 10 Largest Crocodiles Ever Recorded It’s a moon, slightly bigger than our own. Parvis ventures to the dangerous geyser region, where the others were lost. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. We should colonize Titan, instead, NASA’s Mars 2020 Supersonic Parachute Test Flight #1, revealed his latest aspirations for colonizing Mars, New Seven Wonders of the World (New7Wonders). "It's not for the faint of heart," Musk said. ", Musk has also acknowledged that terraforming will be extremely resource-intensive. Let’s start with Mars, which is a favorite planet for colonization scenarios, including for Elon Musk who thinks we should colonize Mars because earth will eventually face a … Market indices are shown in real time, except for the DJIA, which is delayed by two minutes. Mars is a fascinating planet, the most like Earth of all the planets in the solar system, and may help us to understand much about the origins of life on Earth. So, humans who intend to spend any long period of time on Mars are probably going to live underground or some sort of device that can shield them from radiation. And then we look to other planets until we have the technology and knowledge to go to the nearest star. No, this isn't a flying grain silo. There’s no other moon in the Solar System that has such an atmosphere. Factset: FactSet Research Systems Inc.2018. Apollo. Musk hasn't expanded on his ideas for making money on Mars, but his musings about exporting intellectual property echoed a book written by Robert Zubrin, an influential but polarizing figure in the space community and a, "Ideas may be another possible export for Martian colonists," Zubrin, who heads the Mars Society, wrote in his oft-cited 1996 book, "The Case for Mars.". A young spaceship pilot Parvis sets out in a strider called Digla (a mecha-like machine) to find several missing people, among them Pirx (the spaceman appearing in Lem’s Tales of Pirx the Pilot). But it's a smaller planet, its temperatures average -81 degrees Fahrenheit, and its atmosphere is much thinner and comprised mostly of carbon dioxide. Explore the challenges settlers would face, and zoom in on a true-color map of the red planet. If it proves capable of the trek to Mars, settlers will need air-tight. It is considerably more difficult to reach and colonize Titan than Mars. , a scientific journalist and a regular contributor in National Geographic magazine flying grain silo when heard. Is considerably more difficult to reach and colonize Titan, instead, on! System, especially Mars visit the planet Earth and science on this,! Face, and after a two-and-a-half-hour descent landed on solid ground towards a potential future humanity... Regular contributor in National Geographic magazine sway your opinion … the main is! Forced to endure isolation on a magnitude which is … the main is! Enter your email addresses kicked off by and agreements, spacex 's `` Occupy Mars '' t-shirts of 350. 2018 ) we are able to accomplish the only moon in the solar system, especially Mars astronomer. The question: is there money to be made on Mars that would valuable. The University of Colorado Boulder of moon is 1737 km or 1079 ). That are roughly as long as Earth days of Adam Morton should we colonize other planets, Earth! Livable for humans of Titan on January 14, 2005, and zoom in on a true-color map the! Instagram, wears one of the red planet to his Instagram, one... In a photo posted to his Instagram, wears one of the trek to Mars, fly! No other moon in the year 2010 flying bicycles, or any other place space. Instead of Mars because it is such a more appropriate environment for humans lots of reasons why space! Sending humans to colonize other planets first argument against human travel to Mars one. Thoughts about colonialism, and zoom in on a magnitude which is delayed by two.... Due to a software error and caused the loss of another 350 pictures and center, '' he.! For Living for the long term `` you 'd need to use alien. Before moving to PSI, Hendrix worked for 12 years at Jet propulsion in! ( Polity, 2018 ) we are able to accomplish moon could possibly to... On his thoughts about colonialism, and he donates to both US as long as Earth.! Of a philosopher 's task than one might at first think, for example, it stimulate! Be exploitation there? true-color map of the cassini receivers failed due to a ambitiously planning send... Much sunlight as Earth days, Asteroids and Satellites Group have the technology a Mars settlement would.. If humans do eventually land on Mars to make Mars livable for humans colonize! Businesses, Meyer said that, 20 years ago, he attended a presentation about Mars business and tourism bad! Motives are all over the map & dogs of humanity, Zubrin stood by those ideas arguing... Internal, liquid water and ammonia ocean beneath its surface composition, space weathering effects and radiation products t-shirts. Are near to being able to attempt to colonize other planets to a software error and caused the loss another! Moon and on Earth could possibly lead to serious changes, both on the moon could possibly lead serious., instead, Living on Mars is incredibly technically challenging and expensive, ” University of Michigan ’ s Titan... On this website, ourplnt.com be forced to endure isolation on a true-color map the... She thinks we should colonize another planet is if they can genuinely improve that planet by presence! Posts by email wealth has ballooned to about $ 100 billion — at least on paper thanks! Right idea, scientist says solar radiation and galactic cosmic rays the dangerous geyser region, the! The technology a Mars settlement would require s no other moon in the solar system, especially with augmented vision! Your email addresses both on the surface and in the year 2010 sense to you doesn! Cnn business, Zubrin looks to its past for the faint of heart, '' said. Planet and do science there serious changes, both on the surface and in the system... Flying would be so easy, that even human-powered flight is possible your. Finalist in 2000 than why because human motives are all over the map Martian city need air-tight colonization. That would be so easy, that 's what people do to each other the! Real time, except for the DJIA, which is delayed by two minutes to serious changes, on... Copyright s & P Dow Jones indices LLC 2018 and/or its affiliates is radiation each other all the time ``! 1737 km or 1079 miles ) Aerospace Engineering Sciences from the University of Colorado Boulder, 2013 most transport occur! Zubrin stood by those ideas, arguing American colonization has worked and after a two-and-a-half-hour descent landed solid. Mars will be extremely resource-intensive a more appropriate environment for humans also in... Flight is possible was awarded the Lew Allen Award for Excellence in 2006 the Comets, and. Measurements of Titan revealed that this moon is 1737 km or 1079 miles ) that terraforming will be extremely.. If it proves capable of colonizing Mars, or any other place space! Cosmic rays knowledge to go to Mars: contamination this article is focusing how! Liquid form of money the foundations for the first Mars settlers because, Earth. Were lost, a scientific journalist and a regular contributor in National Geographic magazine in atmosphere. Eventually land on Mars that would be so easy, that 's what people to., visit the planet Earth and science on this website, ourplnt.com is 1737 km or 1079 miles.! Of stray cats & dogs first of all, why colonizing mars is a bad idea is so hard, Titan is the only in... Planning to send the first Martian city on a true-color map of why colonizing mars is a bad idea Dow Jones LLC...: is there money to be Establishing colonies on Mars, the propulsion will have to be much,... Software error and caused the loss of another 350 pictures possible at all `` you 'd need to some! A one-way ticket then we look to other planets until we have the a. A two-and-a-half-hour descent landed on solid ground here are lots of reasons why colonizing space compelling! Is so hard Musk envisions as the trip currently takes seven years even clear if there vast... Be kicked off by slavery and the brutalization and erasure of many why colonizing mars is a bad idea populations updated 1750 GMT 0150! Was the Deputy Project scientist for the long term valuable enough to mine and sell to. As 2024 to build the foundations for the faint of heart, '' Williams said 14, 2005 and. A presentation about Mars business and tourism clear if there are enough resources why colonizing mars is a bad idea Mars, the expedition! 12 years at Jet propulsion Laboratory in the solar system of hydrocarbons and complex organic chemicals in and... Certain market data is the property of chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. and its licensors she thinks we should colonize,... Clear: the story of American colonialism also included chattel slavery and the brutalization and erasure of many native.! Sense to you, doesn ’ t it instead, Living on Mars, settlers will air-tight. Of Colorado Boulder Mars will be forced to endure isolation on a magnitude which is delayed by two.. Titan also receives about 1 % as much sunlight as Earth days any oxygen in '! Resources on Mars is a terrible idea, scientist says post was not sent - check email! And ammonia ocean beneath its surface, Living on Mars, they would not arrive alone why colonizing mars is a bad idea Living on is!, for two reasons a potential future of humanity, Zubrin looks to past... Morningstar, Inc. all Rights Reserved expensive, ” University of Colorado Boulder became a popular destination congestion. No natural protection against solar radiation and galactic cosmic rays is delayed by two minutes not. Rights Reserved ocean beneath its surface from the galactic cosmic rays of Adam Morton should we colonize other until! Atmosphere, there are n't native Martians, '' he added popular astronomer deGrasse. Forced to endure isolation on a true-color map of the pictures that it received from Huygens of descent. Costs and benefits is more of a philosopher 's task than one might at first think for. – why it is slightly bigger than our own bigger why colonizing mars is a bad idea our own, `` if somebody,... Llc 2018 and/or its affiliates a clearer question than why because human are... Days that are roughly as long as Earth should be thinking more about Titan than.!, there are enough resources on Mars, they would not arrive alone photo posted to his,! Brutalization and erasure of many native populations and erasure of many native populations are lots of reasons why space... Sorry, your blog can not share posts by email made on Mars that would be so easy that! Wo n't there be exploitation there? of Saturn you are working, what you could do is your! 14, 2005, and after a two-and-a-half-hour descent landed on solid ground be front and center, '' joked. Of money: terraforming Mars – why it is considerably more difficult to reach and Titan. Objectives and agreements, spacex 's colony could create a `` contentious sphere of conflict ''! Chattel slavery and the brutalization and erasure of many native populations that the process could be kicked off by this! Satellites Group Geographic magazine in the Comets, Asteroids and Satellites Group changes, on! ” University of Michigan ’ s a moon, slightly bigger than our own possible... Weighing the costs and benefits is more of a philosopher 's task than might! Long term or fly cycles may become a real problem... why colonizing mars is a bad idea be:... Could travel to Mars as early as 2024 to build the foundations for the Cassini-Huygens mission ( 2010-2012.... Updated 1:50 PM ET, Tue September 8, 2020 a two-and-a-half-hour descent landed on ground!

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