[19] Eventually the Tokugawa government realized they could not depend on the Matsumae and took control of Sakhalin in 1807. Russia has held all of the island since seizing the Japanese portion—as well as all the Kuril Islands—in the final days of World War II in 1945. In an early colonization attempt, a Japanese settlement was established at Ōtomari on Sakhalin's southern end in 1679. Sahalínskaya óblast', IPA: [səxɐˈlʲinskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) comprising the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Russian Far East. Hosted by Società Eridana di Esplorazione Ricerca ed Avventura, Biblioteca comunale di Martinengo and Compagnia teatrale Studio OIDA. Moskwicyna; w 1643 holenderski żeglarz Jansonnius de Vries; w latach 1643–1646 przebywała tam wyprawa Poriakowa. Rejsy w Isola di Salina: zobacz recenzje i zdjęcia barów i klubów w Isola di Salina, Włochy w serwisie Tripadvisor. Sakhalin is one of the largest islands in Russia, which stretches for 948 km from north to south. In 1855, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimoda, which declared that nationals of both countries could inhabit the island: Russians in the north, and Japanese in the south, without a clearly defined boundary between. Bezrobocie wynosi 2%. г. Возвращения) 1325 n.p.m. The remaining 300,000 stayed behind, some for several more years. It was not until the 1787 expedition of Jean-François de La Pérouse that the island began to resemble something of its true shape on European maps. Sachalin (ros. è un'isola dalla forma allungata che si trova nell'oceano Pacifico settentrionale, nell'Estremo Oriente russo (compresa tra i 45° 50' e 54° 24' di latitudine nord). [17] The Ming recruited headmen from Sakhalin for administrative posts such as commander (zhihuishi), assistant commander (zhihui qianshi), "official charged with subjugation" (weizhenfu). In 1890 the distinguished author Anton Chekhov visited the penal colony on Sakhalin and published a memoir of his journey. In the following year, the Qing sent forces to the Amur estuary and demanded that the residents, including the Sakhalin Ainu, pay tribute. Minimalna temperatura wynosiła (−50°C), a odnotowano ją w roku 1980. Badania nad nimi prowadził m.in. Na wyspie znajduje się wiele płytkich, małych jezior. Among the indigenous people of Sakhalin are the Ainu in the southern half, the Oroks in the central region, and the Nivkhs in the north. L'isola è la più grande della Federazione Russa ed è una vicina delle isole Curili. Klimat wyspy jest chłodny, umiarkowany morski. Free Wifi. Sakhalin-2 is one of the world’s largest integrated, export-oriented, oil and gas projects and Russia’s first offshore gas project. [38][39], No final peace treaty has been signed and the status of four neighboring islands remains disputed. Sakhalin (russisk: Сахалин, tr. The Qing dynasty called Sakhalin ‘Kuyedao’ (‘the island of Ainu’) and the indigenous people paid tribute to the Chinese empire. [30] The island remained under shared sovereignty until the signing of the 1875 Treaty of Saint Petersburg, in which Japan surrendered its claims in Sakhalin to Russia. Free parking. The indigenous peoples of the island are the Ainu, Oroks and Nivkhs. Further, the tribute payers were allowed to engage in trade with officials and merchants at the tribute location. Il Filandone. [44] The Poronay flows south-southeast to the Gulf of Patience or Shichiro Bay, on the southeastern coast. About 30% of all inland transport volume is carried by the island's railways, most of which are organized as the Sakhalin Railway (Сахалинская железная дорога), which is one of the 17 territorial divisions of the Russian Railways. Nearly all the cargo arriving for Sakhalin (and the Kuril Islands) is delivered by cargo boats, or by ferries, in railway wagons, through the Vanino-Kholmsk train ferry from the mainland port of Vanino to Kholmsk. Występują tam długie, śnieżne zimy i krótkie, chłodne lato. In 2000, the Russian government revived the idea, adding a suggestion that a 40-km-long bridge could be constructed between Sakhalin and the Japanese island of Hokkaidō, providing Japan with a direct connection to the Eurasian railway network. Residents who were required to pay tributes had to register according to their hala (the clan of the father's side) and gashan (village), and a designated chief of each unit was put in charge of district security as well as the annual collection and delivery of fur. [16], The Qing dynasty called Sakhalin "Kuyedao"[better source needed][dubious – discuss][18] (the island of the Ainu)[better source needed][dubious – discuss][8] also called "Kuye Fiyaka". The Soviets completed the conquest of Karafuto on August 25, 1945 by occupying the capital of Toyohara. [9] The Manchus called it "Saghalien ula anga hata" (Island at the Mouth of the Black River). The Dutch captain, however, was unaware that it was an island, and 17th century maps usually showed these points (and often Hokkaido as well) as being part of the mainland. Sakhalin is beautiful, but has an undeveloped tourist sector Mega Palace Hotel. In 1853–54, Nikolay Rudanovsky surveyed and mapped the island.[29]. Russia is in the process of building a 220 km (140 mi) pipeline across the Tatar Strait from Sakhalin Island to De-Kastri terminal on the Russian mainland. By 2006, it is expected to account for 80% of the island's industrial output. The native inhabitants consist of some 2,000 Nivkhs and 750 Oroks. Gazprom owns licenses for three blocks within the project: Kirinsky, Ayashsky, and Vostochno-Odoptinsky. In contrast to interior east Asia with its pronounced summer maximum, onshore winds ensure Sakhalin has year-round precipitation with a peak in the autumn.[43]. They paid tribute to the Yuan dynasty at posts in Wuliehe, Nanghar, and Boluohe. [28], On the basis of its belief that it was an extension of Hokkaido, both geographically and culturally, Japan again proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island (as well as the Kuril Islands chain) in 1845, in the face of competing claims from Russia. It includes Sakhalin Island (76,600 sq. All 269 passengers and crew died, including a U.S. Sakhalin, oblast (region), extreme eastern Russia, composed of Sakhalin Island and the chain of the Kuril Islands. A later population familiar with bronze left traces in earthen walls and kitchen-middens on Aniva Bay. The Jesuits did not have a chance to visit the island personally, and the geographical information provided by the Ke tcheng people and Manchus who had been to the island was insufficient to allow them to identify it as the land visited by de Vries in 1643. The population of Sakhalin Island was 497,973 as of the 2010 census, made up of mostly ethnic Russians and a smaller Korean community. W 2003 r. Sachalin był drugim regionem Rosji pod względem inwestycji zagranicznych. 樺太, Karafuto) – wyspa na Oceanie Spokojnym u wybrzeży Rosji. Esegui il download di questa immagine stock: Grande Guerra Patriottica 1941~1945 monumento di Nogligi sull isola di Sakhalin - APK8PR dalla libreria Alamy di milioni di fotografie, illustrazioni e vettoriali stock ad alta risoluzione. Po przewrocie bolszewickim (rewolucji październikowej) Sachalin został zajęty przez Białych, a w latach 1920–1925 przez Japonię. Położone są one w północnej części Sachalinu. História. Od kontynentu oddziela ją Cieśnina Tatarska (szerokość w najwęższym miejscu 7,3 km), a od japońskiej wyspy Hokkaido dzieli ją Cieśnina La Pérouse’a. Limited quantities of rye, wheat, oats, barley and vegetables are grown, although the growing season averages less than 100 days.[43]. The bird population is mostly the common east Siberian, but there are some endemic or near-endemic breeding species, notably the endangered Nordmann's greenshank (Tringa guttifer) and the Sakhalin leaf warbler (Phylloscopus borealoides). km.) [9] The word "Kuye" used by the Qing is "most probably related to kuyi, the name given to the Sakhalin Ainu by their Nivkh and Nanai neighbors. Podczas wojny rosyjsko-japońskiej w 1905 r. Sachalin został opanowany przez Japonię, w wyniku wojny południowa część wyspy (od ok. 50 stopnia) przypadła Japonii. They reported that the mainlanders used a variety of names to refer to the island, but Saghalien anga bata (i.e. Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Strait of Tartary, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Hokkaido, Japan, by the Soya Strait or La Pérouse Strait. In accordance with the Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905, the southern part of the island below the 50th parallel north reverted to Japan, while Russia retained the northern three-fifths. Сахалин; jap. There were 500-600 people at the market during Mamiya's stay there. During the last years of its service, it gradually deteriorated; the service was terminated in December 2006, and the line was dismantled in 2007–2008.[50]. Bronisław Piłsudski. Tribute was supposed to be brought to regional offices, but the lower Amur and Sakhalin were considered too remote, so the Qing sent officials directly to these regions every year to collect tribute and present awards. Following the Opium War, Russia forced China to sign the Treaty of Aigun (1858) and the Convention of Peking (1860), under which China lost to Russia all claims to territories north of Heilongjiang (Amur) and east of Ussuri. However, there was no formalized border around the island. The Qing imposed a fur tribute system on the region's inhabitants. ainu Popolazione localizzata nell’isola giapponese di Hokkaido, nel sud dell’isola di Sakhalin e nelle Curili. Na wybrzeżu czynne są porty rybackie i przetwórnie ryb. Free parking. Sakhalin's economy is growing rapidly thanks to its oil and gas industry. The Sakhalin-2 project is an oil and gas development in Sakhalin Island, Russia. It lies at similar latitudes to England, Wales and Ireland. [46], The Sea of Okhotsk ensures that Sakhalin has a cold and humid climate, ranging from humid continental (Köppen Dfb) in the south to subarctic (Dfc) in the centre and north. The oblast has an area of 87,100 square kilometers (33,600 sq mi). Sakhalin (tiếng Nga: Сахалин, phát âm [səxɐˈlʲin]) là một hòn đảo lớn ở phía bắc Thái Bình Dương, nằm giữa 45°50' và 54°24' vĩ Bắc.Hòn đảo là một phần của nước Nga, và cũng là hòn đảo lớn nhất của liên bang này.Về mặt hành chính, đảo là một phần của tỉnh Sakhalin. The Soviet 56th Rifle Corps, part of the 16th Army, consisting of the 79th Rifle Division, the 2nd Rifle Brigade, the 5th Rifle Brigade and the 214 Armored Brigade,[36] attacked the Japanese 88th Infantry Division. 樺太, Karafuto) – wyspa na Oceanie Spokojnym u wybrzeży Rosji. [citation needed]. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Airport has regularly scheduled international flights to Hakodate, Japan, and Seoul and Busan, South Korea. In response the Mongols established an administration post at Nurgan (present-day Tyr, Russia) at the junction of the Amur and Amgun rivers in 1263, and forced the submission of the two peoples. Todo o texto está dispoñible baixo a licenza Creative Commons recoñecemento compartir igual 3.0; pódense aplicar termos adicionais.Consulte os termos de uso para obter máis información. South Sakhalin was administered by Japan as Karafuto Prefecture (Karafuto-chō (樺太庁)), with the capital at Toyohara (today's Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). The archipelago of the Kuril Islands stretches for 1,2… Pomimo niezbyt sprzyjających warunków klimatycznych rozwija się turystyka: w 2019 r. wyspę odwiedziło ok. 305 tys. The present oblast was formed in 1947 after southern Sakhalin and the Kurils were acquired from Japan. Though unable to pass through its northern "bottleneck" due to contrary winds, La Perouse charted most of the Strait of Tartary, and islanders he encountered near today's Strait of Nevelskoy told him that the island was called "Tchoka" (or at least that is how he recorded the name in French), and it was used on some maps thereafter. In August 1945, after repudiating the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, the Soviet Union invaded southern Sakhalin. Of the approximately 400,000 people – mostly Japanese and Korean – who lived on South Sakhalin in 1944, about 100,000 were evacuated to Japan during the last days of the war. Wikipedia® é unha marca rexistrada da Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., unha organización sen fins lucrativos. Sakhalin's main shipping company is Sakhalin Shipping Company, headquartered in Kholmsk on the island's west coast. Ostrov má rozmery 948 km na dĺžku a je široký od 25 do 170 km. Том 1", "The Sakhalin Regional Museum: The Indigenous Peoples", "Началось исследование Южного Сахалина под руководством лейтенанта Николая Васильевича Рудановского", 16th Army, 2nd Far Eastern Front, Soviet Far East Command, 09.08,45, Sakhalin memories: Japanese stranded by war in the USSR, http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/europe/russia/territory/index.html, Japan and Russia want to finally end World War II, agree it is 'abnormal' not to – CSMonitor.com, Karafuto 1945: An examination of the Japanese under Soviet rule and their subsequent expulsion, Sakhalin Hydrometeorological Service, accessed 19 April 2011, "Steam and the Railways of Sakhalin Island", "Minister Proposes 7km Bridge to Sakhalin Island", "Russia Threatens To Halt Sakhalin-2 Project Unless Shell Cleans Up", "Russia Halts Pipeline, Citing River Damage", "CEO delivers message at Sakhalin's first major energy conference", "Sakhalin II: Laying the Base for Future Arctic Developments in Russia", Chyornye Bratya (Chirpoy and Brat Chirpoyev), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sakhalin&oldid=1000779818, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2020, Articles with disputed statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with failed verification from April 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2004, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 17:53. Flint implements such as those found in Siberia have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets similar to European examples, primitive pottery with decorations like those of the Olonets, and stone weights used with fishing nets. The cost overruns (at least partly due to Shell's response to environmental concerns), are reducing the share of profits flowing to the Russian treasury.[55][56][57][58]. Sakhalin was later claimed by both Russia and Japan over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries. It was claimed that construction work could begin as early as 2001. turystów, a ich liczba rośnie o ok. 10 procent rocznie[4]. Its major customers are located in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. Tubylcza ludność składała się z plemion Ajnów, Niwchów i Ewenków. According to the Ming Shilu, these posts, like the position of headman were hereditary and passed down the patrilineal line. Dining in Sakhalin, Sakhalin Oblast: See 4,866 Tripadvisor traveller reviews of 306 Sakhalin restaurants and search by cuisine, price, location, and more. At the beginning of the 20th century, some 32,000 Russians (of whom over 22,000 were convicts) inhabited Sakhalin along with several thousand native inhabitants. Two parallel ranges of mountains traverse it from north to south, reaching 600–1,500 m (2,000–4,900 ft). Inizialmente, Sakhalin è stato identificato sulle mappe come una penisola, ma le spedizioni successive hanno fornito molte prove a favore dell'opinione che Sakhalin sia ancora un'isola. Transport, especially by sea, is an important segment of the economy. Summers are foggy with little sunshine. Tę stronę ostatnio edytowano 18 gru 2019, 15:16. Najlepsze hotele spa w Sakhalin Oblast na Tripadvisor: setki opinii podróżnych, ceny noclegów, oferty i zdjęcia najlepszych spa Sakhalin Oblast, Rosja. The Soviet Union claimed it was a spy plane; however, commanders on the ground realized it was a commercial aircraft. This article is about the Russian geographical island. clock. Smaller minorities were the Ainu, Ukrainians, Tatars, Yakuts and Evenks. [53] In 2018, president Vladimir Putin ordered a feasibility study for a mainland bridge project. W połowie XIX w. wybrzeża zachodnie zaczęli kolonizować Rosjanie. Most of the population lives in the southern half of the island, centered mainly around Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and two ports, Kholmsk and Korsakov (population about 40,000 each). Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous limestones, containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast; and Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls, and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, are found in many parts of the island. [22], Mogami’s interest in the Sakhalin trade intensified when he learned that Yaenkoroaino, the above-mentioned elder from Nayoro, possessed a memorandum written in Manchurian, which stated that the Ainu elder was an official of the Qing state. The rivers swarm with fish, especially species of salmon (Oncorhynchus). In November 2008, Russian president Dmitry Medvedev announced government support for the construction of the Sakhalin Tunnel, along with the required regauging of the island's railways to Russian standard gauge, at an estimated cost of 300–330 billion roubles. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. The Soviet attack started on August 11, 1945, a few days before the surrender of Japan. The project is managed and operated by Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd.. Piltun-Astokhskoye oil field Lunskoye natural gas field Location of … [13] From the Nivkh perspective, their surrender to the Mongols essentially established a military alliance against the Ainu who had invaded their lands. Przemysł Sachalinu jest związany z głównie gospodarką leśną oraz wydobyciem surowców. It includes development of the Piltun-Astokhskoye oil field and the Lunskoye natural gas field offshore Sakhalin Island in the Okhotsk Sea, and associated infrastructure onshore. During the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1736–95), a trade post existed at Delen, upstream of Kiji Lake, according to Rinzo Mamiya. Pokryte są lodem od listopada do kwietnia. Sakhalin is the largest island in Russia, being 948 km (589 mi) long, and 25 to 170 km (16 to 106 mi) wide, with an area of 72,492 km (27,989 sq mi). Sammen med en række japanske øer udgør den grænsen for det Japanske Hav.Hovedby er Jusno-Sakalinsk med 175.000 indbygere. [19][20], The Qing dynasty ruled these regions by imposing upon them a fur tribute system, just as had the Yuan and Ming dynasties. It is located between the Tatar Strait and the Sea of Okhotsk, north of the Japanese island of Hokkaido. W Masywie Trzech Braci Zachodni Grzbiet osiąga 623 m (Góra Drugi Brat). The Ainu also sold the silk uniforms (mangpao, bufu, and chaofu) given to them by the Qing, which made up the majority of what the Japanese knew as nishiki and jittoku. Certain elements of the Sakhalin Ainu were once tributaries of the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties for periods of time from the 14th to 18th centuries. Średnia temperatura stycznia na północy od −17 do −24°C; na południu od −6 do −12°C Temperatury sierpnia odpowiednio od 11 do 15°C, oraz od 16 do 19°C Opady wahają się w zależności od części wyspy od 500 do 1200 mm rocznie. The Sakhalin I project, managed by Exxon Neftegas Limited (ENL), completed a production-sharing agreement (PSA) between the Sakhalin I consortium, the Russian Federation, and the Sakhalin government. In 1431, one such assistant commander, Alige, brought marten pelts as tribute to the Wuliehe post. Main rivers: The Tym, 330 km (205 mi) long and navigable by rafts and light boats for 80 km (50 mi), flows north and northeast with numerous rapids and shallows, and enters the Sea of Okhotsk. Występuje niedźwiedź, lis, rosomak, soból, wiewiórka, borsuk, jeleń. [2] It lies at similar latitudes to England, Wales and Ireland. Planowany jest eksport surowców z wyspy do Chin i Japonii. He also again suggested a bridge between Sakhalin and Hokkaidō, which could potentially create a continuous rail corridor between Europe and Japan. In 2008 there were 6,416 births and 7,572 deaths.[45]. Sakhalín, IPA: [səxɐˈlʲin]; Japanese: 樺太 Karafuto) is the northernmost island of the Japanese archipelago and the largest island of the Russian Federation. XIX w. był miejscem zsyłek i katorgi. Le foto mostrano il faro giapponese di Aniwa, sull'isola russa di Sakhalin. Instead they extorted the Ainu for Chinese silk, which they sold in Honshu as Matsumae's special product. As of 18 April 2007, Gazprom has taken a 50% plus one share interest in Sakhalin II by purchasing 50% of Shell, Mitsui and Mitsubishi's shares. Friday, April 12, 2019 at 8:45 PM – 11:45 PM UTC+02. In 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, the island was divided, with the south going to Japan. Three other small streams enter the wide semicircular Aniva Bay or Higashifushimi Bay at the southern extremity of the island. Find what to do today, this weekend, or in December. The second consortium, Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd (Sakhalin Energy), is managing the Sakhalin II project. 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Di Sachalin è un reportage di viaggio dello scrittore russo Anton Čechov Prigorodnoye... Were told that the islanders were believed to be built in Russia, which they sold Honshu... Economic and political cooperation has gradually improved between the two powers Tolstoj, cui rimase legato amicizia. Operating between Vanino and Kholmsk profilo Instagram Ir0n4ss per le belle immagini offerte foto mostrano il faro giapponese Aniwa... All hands were saved as well as 300 barrels of whale oil. [ 29 ] Vries... Disputes sometimes involved military conflicts and divisions of the island via a 10-kilometre-long ( 6 mi ) formalized around! Centre, 1974 south, reaching most parts of the island formed Sakhalin oblast is the southernmost point of was! Is covered with dense forests, mostly coniferous the federal subject the island. [ 29 ] 21 isola di sakhalin. 8:45 PM – 11:45 PM UTC+02 małych jezior memoir of his journey wyspa włączona została Obwodu. Gazprom owns licenses for three blocks within the project on Sakhalin and the Sea of Okhotsk, north of 19th... Expected to account for 80 % of the Jin dynasty ( 1234 ), elder. Deaths and 750 Oroks amicizia per tutta la vita more years and gray isola di sakhalin to the fast-growing markets... System on the island. [ 29 ] na linii Chołmsk – [! Which stretches for 948 km from north to Korsakov in the south been subdued, lis,,. The rest of Russia ad est della costa asiatica government threatened to the. The ground realized it was a spy plane ; however, there was no formalized around... Political cooperation has gradually improved between the two powers, China, Malaysia, the Mongols the. Especially by Sea, is managing the Sakhalin II has come under fire from environmental groups, namely Environment. 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