metmuseum.org \^/], “Ugarit was a flourishing city, its streets lined with two-story houses dominated on the northeastern side of the tell by an acropolis with two temples dedicated to the gods Baal and Dagan. Artifacts unearthed at Byblos have been dated to 5000 B.C. The Phoenicians would have had every reason to fear an imminent campaign southward by the Hittites. Questions or comments, e-mail email@example.com, Early Man and Ancient History - Ancient Persian, Arabian, Phoenician and Near East Cultures. By comparison Babylon at that time might have had 30,000 residents. Therefore the assumption was made that the Sea Peoples were Mycenaeans. Sarepta, excavated by James Pritchard, is one of the few sites from which we can document in Phoenicia proper the culture of these mariners of old in their homeland. This form of religion was revived by the early Hebrew prophets. In each case there is a cluster of dates within a narrow band for these events. In the late 1980s, archaeologists discovered the remains of Ekron, a 60-acre walled city with around 6,000 residents before it was destroyed in 603 B.C. Philistines were referred to by the Egyptians as the People from the Sea. The people known to history as the Phoenicians occupied a narrow tract of land along the coast of modern Syria, Lebanon and northern Israel. Since Hattusa was defeated by the Sea Peoples, the Sea Peoples must have taken the place over. Other archeologist believe the Philistines were originally a Sea People group. Preview. [xviii] Bentley, Jerry and Herbert Ziegler Traditions & Encounters (New York: McGraw Hill, 2000), p.51. The primary importance of Justin's state ment thus lies in the fact that for a number of schol ars it provided evidence of aggressive activity by "Sea People" along the Phoenician coast. The Philistines, one of the Sea People groups, are easily identified on the depiction of the battles by their distinctive headdresses. Yet the actual Sea Peoples did all these things. I was the valiant Montu, stationed before them, that they might behold the hand-to-hand fighting of my arms. The Phoenician connection to the Druids has been made many times before, and my research also leads to the Phoenicians being the same as the Druids. Operation Odysseus Playlist link- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLDb22nlVXGgd2rdNu1C44t-hoYXA9bL2MSupport new videos from Epimetheus on Patreon! The Hittite blockage had been removed. From the best that can be ascertained the Phoenicians were a mix of peoples and states that eventually became a people of their own. depicts Canaanite dignitaries visiting the pharaoh. than to the commercial interests of the Phoenicians. Per The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Phoenician people were most active around 1500 — 300 BCE and lived in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean. QED. [xxx] Grant, The Ancient Mediterranean, pp. Cremation burial, which can be cited from Anatolia and the Aegean, occurred in the coastal region beginning in the twelfth century and continued well into the seventh century. 103-105. Sea Peoples and Phoenicians along the Southern Phoenician Coast – A Reconciliation: An Interpretation of Šikila (SKL) Material Culture. The Great Harris Papyrus, the longest know papyrus, describes how many people throughout the region were made homeless. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me. [x] Markoe, Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians, p. 24. The Phoenicians are Canaanites, classified as Western Asians, where we can also find the Amorites, a group with whom they were closely related, in terms of both culture and ethnic composition.Canaanites, Phoenicians and Punics: people of this ethnic and cultural group called themselves Canaanites, the Greeks called them Phoenicians and the Romans called them Punics. The geneticist Wells told National Geographic, “The Sea People apparently had bo significant genetic impact on populations in the Levant. QED. The Resource The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) What services could the Sea Peoples possibly have received from these maritime traders? The Canaanites occupied Ashkelon from 1850 until 1175 B.C. The price of grain had already become a hardship—and then it had tripled in cost. Then the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. [xx] Grant, The Ancient Mediterranean, p. 76. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. 1255–66.. New York: Scribner, 1995. This perception was mainly due to two features common to all these tribes: their being equipped with Mycenaean weaponry and their geographical origin being “their isles” or “the sea,” an Egyptian designation for the Aegean world, the confederation comprised two main peoples: the Pulasti and the Sikala, helped by the lesser Shakalusha , Danuna , and Washasha , Peleset, Shekelesh, Denen , and Weshesh ). Betancourt noted there was an adequate supply of food at this time in Greece and that the population had grown very large. | Teacher: Mauricio TorresChapter 3, Section 1 (page 72 in your books) 2. [xxxvi] Sandars, The Sea Peoples, p. 197. In the Iron Age the Phoenician merchants plied their martime trade on the Mediterranean and were the first mariners to circumnavigate Africa. From the 9th to 6th centuries B.C. A 13th century B.C. Nebuchadnezzar is said to have destroyed Ashkelon to send a warning to cities in the region of what would await them if they sided with the Egyptians. 8-304. Who were the Sea Peoples? One thing is for certain, Phoenician was not what they called themselves. at the hands of the Sea Peoples, of whom the best known are the Philistines. They desolated his people and his land like that which is not. Some of them had been known to the Egyptians as sea-raiders and mercenaries since the reign of Akhenaten, in the 18 th Dynasty, and took to plundering the Nile Delta and other parts of the Mediterranean in the following centuries. ), the last great pharaoh of Egypt, is best known for defeating the Sea Peoples — a combination of several different peoples that some historian gave birth to the Phoenicians. The site’s excavation has been overseen by Harvard archaeologist Lawrence Stager since 1985. Based upon the sum of this evidence, we can only conclude that observations of the Phoenician cites being undamaged during this time, and having been accorded a special status by the invaders, have been verified. On the discovery of a puppy in pot, Paula Wapnish, an animal bone specialist at the University of Alabama, told National Geographic, “We think that somebody killed it and placed it in a pit in the ground.” Team member Brian Hesse added, “The pot has char marks. But why was this particular moment chosen for exploding into action? [ii] Experts cannot agree on the specific year in which each of these events occurred. All of this was offered to support a position that the Mycenaeans might have been the Sea Peoples. It is deeply researched but also a highly readable exploration. Even though the Hittites were the long-time adversaries of virtually all the people who made up the Sea Peoples, the Hittites had no excess of food, so the first strike had gone against Egypt. This has led recent sources to refer to them as the Land and Sea Peoples[xxxiv] which is a much more accurate appellation. Food shortages definitely existed in Anatolia, which the Hittites were able to relieve by importing wheat and other goods from Egypt and Canaan. An examination of the Sea Peoples would be remiss if it did not also acknowledge another popular theory: that these people were from the lost city of Atlantis, as identified by Frank Joseph[vii] and others. [iv] Wachsmann, Shelley “To the Sea of the Philistines” The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum, 2000), p. 122. Phoenician mask The Phoenicians evolved from the Canaanites, a Semitic tribe of the Middle East, which also gave birth to the people of Ugariti, the Hebrews (Jews) and later the Arabs. Carthage was a prominent Phoenician port and trade center established by colonists from Lebanon. Now, it happened through this god, the lord of gods, that I was prepared and armed to [trap] them like wild fowl. The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) A vast horde was marching south with a huge fleet at sea supporting the progress on land. In fact the greatest campaigns the Sea Peoples would mount were by land. [xxxi] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 356. The mitochondrial DNA -- or genetic information from his mother's side -- came from a man known as "Young Man of Byrsa" or "Ariche." It is clear that the city dominated the surrounding land (though the full extent of the kingdom is uncertain).. \^/, “Merchants figure prominently in Ugarit's archives. and mixed with local Canaanites to create the Phoenicians. Sanger told National Geographic, “They came by the boatload . Glenn Markoe described the results as showing no destruction and having great continuity in the strata. Also, the general region became known as the land of the Palestu (=Palestine), or Philistines. Janson Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.), Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications. [xxii] Dunand, Maurice Byblos (French, translated into English by H. Tabet) (Paris: Librairie Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1973), pp. 73-74. Philistines, Phoenicians and Sea Peoples. The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) Katherine Reece. At its height Canaanite Ashkelon was probably home to 15,000 people , quite a large number in ancient times. [xxv] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 60. 364-365. Until Joseph excavates his proposed site or someone else can show this legendary place still existed—and then perished—at the same time as the Sea Peoples (sending them out to conquer other lands), this possibility is not adequately supported. It looks at the evidence that points to a series of catastrophic events in the western Mediterranean during the Bronze Age which culminated in the final and utter collapse of the Myceneaen colonial power of the El Argar in Spain in about 1350 BC. However, since their writings were made on papyrus, little remains except what has been written about them by Greek and Egyptian scholars. A symbiotic relationship seems to have developed between those who were motivated to find good land for their families and those who simply wanted booty and adventure. The advance of the Sea Peoples was finally stopped in the Nile delta and their power was broken. By clarifying the “mysteries” surrounding them, we are now able to more fully understand this critical turning point in history. His monuments include the temple at Medinet Habu. Their Phonetic language and alphabet was the result of a need to amalgamate the various languages of the Mediterranean of the various peoples that constituted their sea-fairing nation; North Africans, siardinians, Sicilians, Porto Etruscans, Iberians, etc. They established long-distance sea routes linking Europe, Africa, and Asia, and became wealthy sea traders. Please login to your account first; Need help? Books: Curtis, Adrian Ugarit (Ras Shamra). They are famed for their commercial and maritime prowess and are recognised as having established harbours, trading posts and settlements throughout the Mediterranean basin. Then the rise of the Mycenaeans[xix] caused sea trade in the Aegean—and even as far as Cyprus—to fall into the hands of that new power. Around 1550 B.C. Many theories have been advanced to explain these times, and their participants have been declared to come from Anatolia, or the Aegean, or even Atlantis. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen they fought with the tenacity of those defending their homes. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Flowing down through Canaan they destroyed the cities they encountered. (Albright notes that the wars of the "sea peoples" occured at 1190 B. C.) Dotan, The Philistines And Their Material Culture, 1967, p. 5 (Hebrew) 3 The reign of king David is generally accepted as having begun c. 1040 B. C. Genetic studies indicate that many of the people in Lebanon are descendants of Phoenicians and Canaanites while their impact in North Africa was minimal. Shelley Wachsmann[iv] added a significant point which was missing from the above explanation, and that was the participation of people from Central Europe and the Black Sea region. 1267-1279. The findings reported in the journal PLOS ONE suggest his maternal lineage likely came from the north Mediterranean coast, on the Iberian Peninsula in present-day Spain or Portugal. A few historians, however, think the Phoenicians navigated the entire Atlantic Ocean . 2, edited by Jack M. Sasson, pp. [xxxii] In addition, by going through the Hittite land and Canaan, the Sea Peoples would bring a force numbering hundreds of thousands to confront the wheat-rich Egyptians—rather than the handful of warriors who had failed on the first attempt. In this part of Anatolia is where we find unrelieved food shortages and increasing pressure to take some form of necessary action. Mediterranean port located on the Syrian coast, 10 kilometers north of the Syrian port of Latakia on the Mediterranean coast, east of the northeast coast of Cyprus. We have seen how pressures were increasing in and around Anatolia. [xiii] Betancourt, Philip P. “The Aegean and the Origin of the Sea Peoples” The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum, 2000), pp. However, much of our knowledge about the Phoenicians during the Iron Age (ca. Then the rise of the Mycenaeans [xix] caused sea trade in the Aegean—and even as far as Cyprus—to fall into the hands of that new power. Ancient Phoenicians, known for their Purple colors, command of the Sea, and the Traders of the Mediteranian, Creators of such famed ports as Sidon, home of … Phoenician, one of a people of ancient Phoenicia. Large numbers of them settled in Canaan and gave their own name to the land: primarily the Peleset people who settled a wide swath of land which became known as Palestine. But at that point the model failed. Among his other accomplishments were revived trade with the Land of Punt, reestablishing law and order throughout the country and launching a tree planting campaign. They brought early Greek culture to Holy Land and are thought to have originated from Aegean region. I equipped my frontier in Zahi, prepared before them. Philistines, Phoenicians and Sea Peoples Some archeologist and historians believe a mysterious group known as the Sea People — perhaps ancestors of the Minoans — migrated to Lebanon around 1200 B.C. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004, metmuseum.org\^/], "With the decline of Egyptian influence about 1200 B.C., the cities were freed from foreign domination. Take a look inside this book on Amazon. Much of their culture in the Lebanese coast, however, remains undocumented in part due to disturbance of Iron Age sites by later Persian, Hellenistic and Roman cultures. Canaanite Ashkelon covered 60 hectares. The Mycenaean citadel-cities may or may not have been taken at this time, but the coastal towns were certainly laid waste by these raiders. The sea trade of the Phoenicians was still more extensive than their land traffic. Phoenician, one of a people of ancient Phoenicia. 9. [xvi] Wachsmann, “To the Sea of the Philistines”, pp. [xlv] Barnett, “The Sea Peoples”, pp. [Source: Pierre Grandet, 2014, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013 escholarship.org <>], The Sea Peoples annihilated the Hittite Empire and looked they might do the same to the Egyptians. [Source: AFP, May 26, 2016], AFP reported: “According to lead study author Lisa Matisoo-Smith, a professor in the department of anatomy at New Zealand's University of Otago, the remains reveal the earliest known evidence in North Africa of a rare European genetic population, or haplogroup, known as U5b2c1. An important element mentioned by many sources, and yet given consideration by virtually none, is the simple fact that—in the midst of a cataclysm which destroyed almost every city in the eastern Mediterranean area—the Phoenician cities remained untouched. They were defeated by the armies of Ramses II in the 12th century B.C. At the territory’s southeast corner they turned south on their path of destruction and, observing their special relationship with Phoenicia, they by-passed that land. “Phoenicians” was the name given to this people by the Greeks, but the Phoenicians continued to refer to themselves as Canaanites or by the names of their principal cities. We will soon see how the Mycenaeans fit into the events of this time—however it is already clear they were not the Sea Peoples. Before answering that question, let us examine the intense pressures which were mounting upon the Phoenicians. <>, The Sea Peoples This great movement of people was well armed and desperate. During this time the Hittites continued to press southward. The historical record on them between 1,000 and 600 B.C. Ugarit literature is full of epic stories about gods and goddesses. . At Ashkelon (see Below) Canaanite families placed corpses in burial chambers and kept them there until the flesh rotted off, a process that took several months, then they would bury the bones in recesses and corners of the chambers. The quick-strike raids in the Aegean and across the southern coast of Anatolia seem particularly of this nature, given that delivering settlers into those areas does not seem to have been the prime motivation. The Philistines occupied Ashkelon from 1175 B.C. In year eight of Ramesses III, they invaded Amurru, whose territory adjoined Egypt’s, where they took the time to regroup their forces before moving south, allowing the pharaoh to mobilize his forces. They were merchants, traders, and colonizers who probably arrived from the Persian Gulf about 3000 bce. 37-39. Ramses had lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up continuous volleys of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land. Their hearts were confident, full of their plans. He established a defensive line in Southern Palestine and requisitioned every available ship to secure the mouth of the Nile. According to the Bible, the ancient Canaanites, were idol worshipers who practiced human sacrifice and engaged in deviant sexual activity. to 604 B.C. Stager has suggested that the Canaanites perhaps were the Hyksos, mysterious people from the north that conquered the ancient Egyptians, based in the discovery of artifacts in Egypt from the Hyskso period that are identical with those found in Canaanite Ashkelon. Operation Odysseus Playlist link- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLDb22nlVXGgd2rdNu1C44t-hoYXA9bL2MSupport new videos from Epimetheus on Patreon! There clearly was a rising food shortage at this time. In a special wing of the palace were a number of rooms apparently devoted to administration, since hundreds of cuneiform tablets were discovered there covering almost all aspects of the life of Ugarit from the fourteenth to the twelfth century B.C. No one knows who the Sea Peoples were. [xii] Rather than disproving the current assertion, this remarkable treatment of Arwad adds to the view that the Phoenicians were accorded a special status by the invading peoples. They came, they traded, they left. Wachsmann traced this design to vessels found only in Central Europe[xlii] along the Danube River corridor. An Egyptian wall painting from 1900 B.C. With plentiful supplies of fresh water, it was a major exporters of wine, olive oil, wheat and livestock. Dispatches were sent to frontier posts with orders to stand firm until the main army could be brought into action. [xxxii] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 357. How "People of the Sea" Came to Be The Egyptians originally coined the name "Peoples of the Sea" for the foreign contingents that the Libyans brought in to support their attack on Egypt in c. 1220 BC during the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah. This may have been a major factor in the events of this time. | Teacher: Mauricio TorresChapter 3, Section 1 (page 72 in your books) 2. Using any of the other dates within these bands does not change the outcome. They seem to have stuck mostly to themselves. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Find books In 603 B.C. Pierre Grandet wrote: “Medinet Habu sources, both textual and iconographic, reduce this campaign to two main battles, addressing the twofold threat the Sea Peoples represented: first, the repelling of an attempted landing by a group of enemy ships, crushed between Egyptian warships coming from the high sea and Ramesses III’s infantry waiting for them on the shore; and second, an inland battle, fought against a migrating group of the same invaders, who possessed chariotry and were accompanied by carriages laden with their women, their children, and all their belongings . The Philistines themselves killed the Hebrew King Saul. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. Year: 2004. 1-8. [xxxviii] Approximately two years later the Kaska captured Hattusas, the capital of the Hittites, and that empire died.[xxxix]. Then later a shekel would buy only two qa of grain. Having said this, it must be noted that other motivations appear to have existed for the Sea Peoples as well. It is divisible into two branches, their trade with their own colonists, and that with the natives of the various countries to which they penetrated in their voyages. , Phoenician was not open to the Hittite court. ” \^/ known as.! Food and their teeth indicate they ate a lot of individuals could get crammed inside,.... Described on his victory stele at Thebes. [ xxviii ] that amount. Were merchants, traders, and piers thought to have been the Sea Peoples ’ attacks, of... 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